• ‘Aquino violated chain of command’

    DEFECTIVE PLAN Interior Secretary Manuel Roxas 2nd (top right) speaks to PNP chief Leonardo Espina (center) and Director Benjamin Magalong (left) as he leafs through a copy of the final report of the PNP-Board of Inquiry which concluded that (mugshots from left) President Aquino, resigned PNP chief Alan Purisima and former Special Action Force commander Getulio Napeñas Jr. broke the Chain of Command when they kept Roxas and Espina out of the loop in the botched Oplan Exodus. Photo by Miguel de Guzman

    Interior Secretary Manuel Roxas 2nd (top right) speaks to PNP chief Leonardo Espina (center) and Director Benjamin Magalong (left) as he leafs through a copy of the final report of the PNP-Board of Inquiry which concluded that (mugshots from left) President Aquino, resigned PNP chief Alan Purisima and former Special Action Force commander Getulio Napeñas Jr. broke the Chain of Command when they kept Roxas and Espina out of the loop in the botched Oplan Exodus. Photo by Miguel de Guzman

    “The chain of command in the PNP was violated. The President, the suspended CPNP Purisima and the former Director SAF Napeñas kept the information to themselves.”

    This was the primary finding contained in the final report of a special probe team created to make heads and tails of Oplan Exodus, or the police operation that resulted in the death of 44 members of the Special Action Force (SAF) in Mamasapano, Maguindanao, on January 25.

    “PNP” is the Philippine National Police and “CPNP” is “Chief PNP,” as the head of the country’s top police organization is called by officers and men.

    Oplan Exodus “was defective from the very beginning,” the PNP-Board of Inquiry (PNP-BOI) said in its report.

    Details of the report, which were submitted on Thursday to acting national police chief, Deputy Director General Leonardo Espina, were presented in full on Friday by Interior Secretary Manuel Roxas 2nd.

    The three personalities referred to by the PNP-BOI were President Benigno Aquino 3rd, then-suspended PNP chief Alan Purisima and then-SAF commander, Director Getulio Napeñas Jr.

    “[They] deliberately failed to inform the OIC [Officer-in-Charge of the] PNP [Espina] and the SILG [Roxas],” the report said.

    “SILG” is Secretary of Interior and Local Government.

    “The Chain of Command should be observed in running mission operations,” it added.

    The PNP-BOI, headed by the chief of the PNP Criminal Investigation and Detection Group, Director Benjamin Magalong, found that the President “bypassed the established PNP Chain of Command” by dealing “directly” with Napeñas instead of with Espina.

    “While the President has the prerogative to deal directly with any of his subordinates, the act of dealing with Napeñas instead of OIC-PNP Espina bypassed the established PNP Chain of Command,” the board said.

    “Under the Manual for PNP Fundamental Doctrine, the Chain of Command runs upward and downward. Such Manual requires the commander to discharge his responsibilities through a Chain of Command,” the report said.

    Purisima, who during congressional hearings admitted to having a hand in the planning of the mission while he was serving a suspension in connection with a graft case, has no place in the chain of command.

    “Purisima could not be legally [forming]part of the Chain of Command by reason of his suspension,” the PNP-BOI report said.

    The report added that Espina as the “senior commander” should have been informed about the planning and execution of Oplan Exodus in accordance with the fundamental doctrine of the national police that requires strict adherence to the chain of command.

    “Such manual provides that it’s only in urgent situation when intermediate commanders may be bypassed. In such instances that intermediate commanders should be notified of the context of order as soon as possible by both the commanders issuing the order and the commander receiving it,” it said.

    The report added that under Oplan Exodus, the chain of command in the PNP should have been the OIC of PNP, Deputy Director General Leonardo Espina as the senior commander and Napenas as the intermediate commander.

    The report’s executive summary said Oplan Exodus, which was launched to serve arrest warrants against international terrorist Zulkifli bin Hir alias Marwan and bomb-maker Abdul Basit Usman, “[could]never be executed effectively.”

    The PNP-BOI primarily blamed the PNP’s lack of coordination with the military and “the peace mechanism entities” for the tragic outcome of the mission.

    It said the time-on-target coordination, which was planned by Napeñas “[did]not conform to the established and acceptable operational concepts and protocols of the PNP.”

    “[Time on target or TOT] is applicable only to ordinary police operations,” according to the board. “Even AFP [Amed Forces of the Philippines] commanders asserted that the TOT concept is alien to the Armed Forces and runs counter to their established SOPs.”

    “It appears that Napeñas’ primary consideration for adopting the TOT concept was operational security to reduce the risk of having Oplan Exodus compromised,” the PNP-BOI said.

    The report said that when President Aquino directed Purisima and Napeñas to coordinate the operation with the military, the now sacked SAF commander raised the concern that the AFP might be compromised as some soldiers have intermarried with the locals.

    The PNP-BOI report also took note of defective equipment used by the SAF troops during the mission.

    “Some of the ordnance for M203 were defective. Although there were sufficient rounds of ammunition for each operating troop, the overwhelming strength of the enemy caused the troops to run out of ammunition,” it said.

    The probers also noted that the hand-held radios were not designed for military use and “failed when submerged in water.” It also ran out of battery life “because of wear and tear.”

    Malacañang said Purisima’s perceived closeness to the President will not save him from his involvement in the Mamasapano incident.

    According to its deputy spokesperson Abigail Valte, the President maintains his position that charges will be filed against anyone based on evidence.

    “The President has always been clear. We will follow where the evidence leads us. And so far, we don’t see any reason anybody could escape liability based on what other people say. But, again, it really should be based on evidence, which is why, in the first place, the [PNP-BOI] was called or convened,” she said.

    Party-list representatives Terry Ridon (Kabataan) and Walden Bello (Akbayan) said the report proved that Aquino is guilty of a cover-up.

    With Joel M. Sy Egco and Llanesca T. Panti


    Please follow our commenting guidelines.


    1. The real culprit resides in the Palace for ensuring that the operation was botched by voiding the chain of command even before the first ground pounder was deployed. When is PNOY going to held accountable?

    2. The BOI report is good. It gives the PNP view of everything that happened. Naturally missing is the testimony of Aquino, Purisima and the AFP generals. It is only Purisima’s missing testimonty that is strange. He is PNP but he only submitted a statement and did not allow himself to be questioned. Aquino and the AFP do not have to answer to a BOI of the PNP. Even then the blame is laid to Aquino, Purisima and Napenas.

    3. Joel Rodriguez on

      As President and Head of the AFP, PNoy has every right to make any military decisions so long as it is not prejudicial to the interest of the people. In this case, the goal was attained. Yes, he was informed by Napenas and in turn PNoy said to coordinate with the military. He violated his commander-in-chief’s order by not doing so and to top it all he didn’t inform the president of his timing, rather he reported to Purisima who was suspended. He could use as his excuse Purisma’s closeness to the president, but, did he not use his common sense that Purisima was under suspension? Maybe he was trying to show off, or could it be that there’s somebody or something that motivated him to do it. It’s sad, we lost 44 good men.

    4. sabi ni de Lima walang chain of command sa PNP yun pala nasa manual nila! she seems to eager to ass-lick somebody’s behind kahit mag mukha syang “TATANGA-TANGA” sa madla! no wonder the Pnoy admin is such in a mess with such moronic advisers and leader!!!

    5. The release by the PNP of their independent BOI report, is a good start, because it implicates BS Cojuangco Aquino III and in the same breath that it identifies Purisma and Nepanas, at the scene of the crime. Likewise,it gives their report the credibility it requires, and it gives BS Cojuangco Aquino III a tight wriggle room for which to make any demand for clemency.

      If the other branch of government service is aghast with its release before the other ‘investigation’ by the senate is released, then it must have to be considered that MILF in fact released their own report for review weeks before, and which is not to the judicial body of the republic, but to a country that holds no sovereign power over the Philippines.

      In the coming days, it would be interesting to see what sort of worm(s) would come out of the woodwork. But the die had been cast, and Filipinos now are more aware than before, that the chain-of-command still ends up on the doorstep of the president.

    6. Hindi ako maniwala na si Roxas hindi kasama sa attack plan sa Mamasapano. Alam nila na palpak at maraming namatay na SAF kaya hindi pinalabas ang pangalan para hindi masira ang pangalan niya para sa pagtakbong presidente.

    7. Now I know why incompetence is like a disease in this administration. Roxas exonerated panot after the BOI report… dear secretary ..the headings clearly indicts the three “promotors” of this operation..if analyzing the simple information of the BOI report is hard for Roxas to understand and comprehend… then we might take that as his true IQ level and for that matter..the reason why he is bungling his assigned tasks at DOTC and DILG…and this is prevalent among the KKK psychopaths of ABNOY resulting in this chaotic situation in the country today…. they are a bunch of liars protecting each other’s dirty asses..pero very evident due to their actual record of performance… wow mga bugok Na Lang siguro ang maniniwala Sa mga kapwa nila ugok Diyos ko hanggang Kelan Po kami magtitis Sa mga kahayupan Ng mga ito….the ship is sinking so might as well rock it also to hasten the fall….

    8. This is not about the chain of command violation,it is about President B.Aquino abandoning and betraying the SAF Commandos result Fallen44,to protect the BBL and not hurt his friends the terrorist MILF.It is criminal and treason.47 days and still no justice for the Fallen 44.

    9. Bakit hindi nabanggit sa BOI report ang kriminal na pananagutan ng MILF at iba pang grupong armado na pumatay sa SAF44 at sa iba pang miembro ng SAF na nasugatan sa trahedyang ito?

    10. Vicente Penetrante on

      Close buddies Aquino and Purisima can walk with hands over each other’s shoulder. Napenas has no one to cling on.

    11. Johnny Ramos on

      When Pnoy broke the chain of command of the PNP, there was a betrayal of public trust which is an impeachable offense. I wonder why there were no SAF commandoes left on the other side of river after they cross the river to provide logistical support in case of prolong gunfight. Are they really blocking force or escort.

    12. No matter how you try to sugar coat the lies, the truth will prevail. Aquino should resign or step down if only for delicadeza. As for Purisima if you have an ounce of honor, come clean or do a Gen. Reyes.

    13. The SAF 44 died because Aquino, by all accounts, STOPPED the reinforcements that could have saved their lives. He did not neglect to send help; he PREVENTED help from being sent to them.

      Let us not lose sight of that central fact.

      Maybe Operation Exodus/Wolverine was poorly planned. (Aquino had authorized it, anyway.) Maybe Napenas bungled its execution. (Yet, his men accomplished their mission.) Assuming this were true, Aquino could have punished Napenas later. But during those desperate hours that the SAF commandos were trapped by MILF-BIFF snipers in that Mamasapano cornfield, he should have ordered an immediate rescue.

      Instead, he ordered the back-up forces to stand down. And that gave the MILF-BIFF a free hand to kill the SAF wholesale.

      • Agree 100% with you. The stand down order killed the 44 troopers not the poor planning and execution. And only Pnoy can order the stand down. The AFP generals would have come to the aid of their mistahs – Napenas and Espina when both asked for help from the military.

    14. sdo is d curse of d aquino. stock distribution option sa hacienda luisita at stand down order sa masasapano. jejejeje

    15. yup. the SDO – stand down order – is the killer order. that is the evidence that lead to abnoy aquino

    16. My question is, who can command Purisima? It is only Pres. Pnoy di ba? Whose order did Napenas follow. Order ni Purisima hindi ba?What order did Purisima gave to Napenas. Yong order ni Pnoy sa kanya. So? Pnoy’s order was the initiative why everything happened. Cuz if Pnoy did not gave the order things could not have happened. So for me Pnoy is guilty of everything that happend in Mansasapano maski ano pa ang sabihin ni Ms. Valtik. All those investigations being done by everyone including BOI happened because of what Pnoy started.

    17. For me the most important thing is why and who hold the reinforcement,
      a lot of lifes could have still been saves as what the relatives of SAF 44 is shouting?

    18. I have downloaded and read the PNP’s BOI official report. It was ridiculously “sanitized” and “tailored” of course to absolve our stupid and incompetent leader. It looks like legally, he’s off the hook, but truly I tell you, on the morality side, he’s on his own. I need to ask the question : “How does he sleep at night?” But I guess that boat named Conscience has sailed. If he ever decides to write his memoirs, I will see what he has to say. It might make for “interesting” reading, who knows? If the paper is soft enough, I might use each page to wipe my butt in the morning.

      If anyone even cares, here is the link for the download :


      • Yung katangahan nung mga bumoto ke ABNOY eh Kasama tayong Hindi bumoto Na nagsusuffer din… since Aquino’s ship is fast-sinking… eh dagdagan pa Ng butas ang bark..and no life vest for Aquino, Rosas and KKK company please…..

      • you are WRONG!!! he was elected by the PCOS machines and all his alipores…not by the Filipino voters…

    19. Ruben V. Calip on

      It’s a report that is meant to exonerate Aquino. Of course BS Aquno “violated” the chain of command by making himself in command. But why does the report not say he is responsible and accountable for the whole thing when he made himself the top shot-caller and used his buddy and suspended CPNP Purisima as his XO!

      The template for this PNP BOI report was written in Malacanang!

      And you can read between the lines that it is meant to exonerate Roxas so his candidacy for president in 2016 can be revived from the garbage can.

      Then Smartmatic-PCOS machine will make him president!

      • you are right, they will fry binay as long as they can then SWS survey will come out with binay starting to go down the drain then PCOS will take care of everything

    20. Guilty verdict for Benigno. Stepping down (resigning) is better than being bodily removed. Either way, justice must be served. It is just a question of how. And if he is mulling the idea of seeking pardon, he can forget it. The dead will stir in their graves, so will his father.
      Time to pack up. The presidential seat no longer recognizes your authority.

    21. The one and final thing that really blow-up the saf-44 to dust was when Aquino gave his order to STAND DOWN because of the BBL / CEASEFIRE agreement that might get ruined. aquino deliberately chose the death of the saf-44 over the muslim rebels, PERIOD

      • apolonio reyes on

        The BOI report was good that it says three people to blame for the mess and I expect the same report will come out of the senate, congress, DOJ, HR etc. but, tama ka mdm, what people want to know are why did the AFP and the remaining 300 SAF members did not help the 84th and 55 SAF members when MILF clearly broke the PEACE TALK with the GPH when they joined forces with the BIFF and armed goons finishing the 55th SAF even when some are still alive???? Was it true that the AFP was ordered to STAND DOWN and by WHO due to the PEACE TALK with the MILF? Did the AFP considered the MILF Peace talk first when their comrades-in-arms are already being massacred by the combined force of MILF, BIFF and private armed goons for 11 hours figthing?
        I believed these are the things the families of our 44 SAF Fallen Heroes and our people want to know from the reports. Di ba mdm?