• Ex-wife cannot anymore file concubinage case vs ex-husband

    Persida Acosta

    Persida Acosta

    Dear PAO,
    Can I still file a case against my husband for cohabiting with another woman once our marriage is declared null and void by the court?

    Dear Susan,
    Under the law, a married man who shall cohabit with a woman not his wife shall be guilty of concubinage and shall be meted the penalty of imprisonment. This is according to the Revised Penal Code of the Philippines, which expressly provides:

    “Art. 334. Concubinage.—Any husband who shall keep a mistress in the conjugal dwelling, or shall have sexual intercourse, under scandalous circumstances, with a woman who is not his wife, or shall cohabit with her in any other place, shall be punished by prision correccional in its minimum and medium periods.

    The concubine shall suffer the penalty of destierro.”

    If you are contemplating on filing a criminal case for concubinage against your husband and the latter’s concubine, you must have the capacity to do so. Remember that the crime of concubinage is a private crime, therefore only the wife can file the case and no one else (Article 344, Revised Penal Code of the Philippines).

    If your marriage to your husband was already declared null and void by the court, you are no longer his wife. It follows then that you cannot file anymore the criminal case for concubinage against your former husband and his paramour. This was elaborated by the Supreme Court in the case of Imelda M. Pilapil vs. Hon. Corona Ibay-Somera (G.R. No. 80116, June 30, 1989):

    “Now, the law specifically provides that in prosecutions for adultery and concubinage the person who can legally file the complaint should be the offended spouse, and nobody else. xxx In other words, only the offended spouse, and no other, is authorized by law to initiate the action therefor.”

    Corollary to such exclusive grant of power to the offended spouse to institute the action, it necessarily follows that such initiator must have the status, capacity or legal representation to do so at the time of the filing of the criminal action. This is a familiar and express rule in civil actions; in fact, lack of legal capacity to sue, as a ground for a motion to dismiss in civil cases, is determined as of the filing of the complaint or petition.

    The absence of an equivalent explicit rule in the prosecution of criminal cases does not mean that the same requirement and rationale would not apply. Understandably, it may not have been found necessary since criminal actions are generally and fundamentally commenced by the State, through the People of the Philippines, the offended party being merely the complaining witness therein. But in “private crimes” or those which cannot be prosecuted de oficio, and the present prosecution for adultery is of such genre, the offended spouse assumes a more predominant role since the right to commence the action, or to refrain therefrom, is a matter exclusively within his power and option.

    This policy was adopted out of consideration for the aggrieved party who might prefer to suffer the outrage in silence rather than go through the scandal of a public trial. Hence, as cogently argued by petitioner, Article 344 of the Revised Penal Code thus presupposes that the marital relationship is still subsisting at the time of the institution of the criminal action for, adultery. This is a logical consequence since the raison d’etre of the provision of law would be absent where the supposed offended party had ceased to be the spouse of the alleged offender at the time of the filing of the criminal case

    On the other hand, if a petition for declaration of nullity of marriage is still pending, you are still considered the legitimate wife of your husband. Therefore, you can institute the Criminal Complaint for Concubinage against him and his paramour, with more reason if the petition has not yet been filed.

    Again, we find it necessary to mention that this opinion is solely based on the facts you have narrated and our appreciation of the same. The opinion may vary when the facts are changed or elaborated.

    We hope that we were able to guide you with our opinion on the matter.

    Editor’s note: Dear PAO is a daily column of the Public Attorney’s Office. Questions for Chief Acosta may be sent to dearpao@manilatimes.net


    Please follow our commenting guidelines.


    1. Dear Atty,

      I am currently out of the country. My husband & I are not in good terms for 5 yrs now and we have 3 children all boys, ages 7, 10 & 12. We are not legally separated till now. He is living in a small apartment with another woman who is working in one of our government institution ( COMELEC ). In 2012, I went to the Philippines to visit my family. I and my husband had a talk and agreed that the youngest son will stay with him and the oldest and the middle child will stay with my family. So everything went smooth and I decided to go back to my work abroad. I am visiting the country every year.

      And this year 2015 , my mother in law with my husbands big brother visited my home and they took my 2 kids. My sister phoned me and told me what happened.

      Can i have my kids back? Please advise the best steps to have my children back.
      Can i file a case against my husband? Can i file a case against other woman who is working in COMELEC?

      He did not remarry but he is living with this other woman. They are staying together in once roof for 5 years.

      Looking forward to read your response soon.

      Thank you very much

      Best regards,

    2. Atty good day papano po kung sabi ng ex ko ngdemanda daw sya eh wla nmn kmi ntatanggap n subpeona kahit sa bahay ng magulang ko wla ntatanggap pwede ba ako magkaron ng warrant? Thanks alot maam

    3. Dear Pao, my Me and my ex – husband separated in 13 years now. He did not even give a chance to visit my kid’s and never give us support even one peso. Then last month of June 2013 he got married to another woman. But we still married. I just want to clear my status for singleness beside he married but I don’t have enough money to file anything about him. We separate because he has 3rd party and they have 3 kids now. Can you help me what shall I do our marriage. Rosalie Masigla

    4. Dear Atty Acosta:
      Is it mandatory to use the surname of the husband even if the marriage is through church and not civil?
      Thank you

    5. Saan ko po pwede i file ang case?kung saan po ba ako nakatira?pati po ba ang girl na karelasyon kasama po sa kaso?