Grammatical pitfalls when ‘everyone’ is the antecedent


I THOUGHT I was being presented with a red herring when I received an e-mail a few days ago from a Quezon City-based lawyer who made this observation: “In his recent State of the Union address, US President Barack Obama said: ‘Everyone must do their share…’ That is now very common. We hear a lot about ‘everyone’ being asked to do ‘their’ part in nation-building, etc. And what’s the deal with ‘between you and I’?”

Evidently, Atty. Stephen Monsanto meant to say that President Obama could have said “Everyone must do his or her share” instead, but didn’t because even if that usage is grammatically airtight, the preferred option now is the plural adjective “their” for such constructions even if it’s grammatically faulty.

I thoroughly checked the quote, nevertheless, with the text of President Obama’s speech and found that it wasn’t a red herring after all. It wasn’t exactly what the president said but close to it, with the debatable usage even repeated in this scrupulously parallel construction (italicizations mine): “That’s what middle-class economics is—the idea that this country does best when everyone gets their fair shot, everyone does their fair share, and everyone plays by the same set of rules. We don’t just want everyone to share in America’s success—we want everyone to contribute to our success.”

Now the big question is: Did President Obama unknowingly commit a subject-verb agreement blunder in that speech?

My opinion is a qualified “No, he didn’t,” and I’ll now proceed to explain why.
Recall that “everyone” is a singular pronoun that refers to every unspecified person in a group; there’s a presumed zone of ignorance on whether the group is all-male, all-female, or mixed-gender. In President Obama’s speech, however, “everyone” clearly refers to the American people as a whole, which is unquestionably a mix of males and females. I therefore think that it would have sounded odd—and distractingly repetitious—for him to use “him or her” with that certain knowledge about his constituency: “That’s what middle-class economics is—the idea that this country does best when everyone gets his or her fair shot, everyone does his or her fair share, and everyone plays by the same set of rules…”

But hardline grammar prescriptivists would insist that to be an exemplar for correct English, President Obama should have avoided the obvious subject-verb disagreement altogether by replacing “everyone” with the pronoun “all”: “That’s what middle-class economics is—the idea that this country does best when all get their fair shot, all do their fair share, and all play by the same set of rules…” That’s grammatically faultless all the way, but we can see and feel that the eloquence, fluidity and sense of urgency of the original statement are gone.

The problem with using “everyone” is, of course, that English doesn’t have a singular third-person possessive adjective of indeterminate gender. All it has are the masculine adjective “his” and the feminine adjective “her,” and in contemporary usage, the classic recourse to “his” as default possessive adjective when the antecedent pronoun’s gender isn’t specified is now widely frowned upon as sexist.

Also, as I’ve shown above, we can replace “everyone” with “all” to sidestep the gender problem but this tends to depersonalize the statement and make it less compelling.

This is actually why even at the risk of being looked upon as less than perfect in their grammar, many English-savvy people like President Obama now use “their” as possessive adjective for “everyone” as antecedent even in their formal English—and I do think that it’s not an unwise and illogical decision.

P.S. “Between you and I” is indefensibly wrong usage, though; it should be “between you and me.” A pronoun that follows “between” should always be in the objective case, like “me” instead of the subjective-case “I.”

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  1. For third person singular with indeterminate gender, the singular “they” and its derivatives have a long history of use. Their use has an equally long history of criticism. Facebook and Yahoo use the singular “they” for users who don’t specify their gender. Or is it sex?

    • You’re absolutely right that for “everyone” and other singular indefinite pronouns used as antecedents, the adjectives “they,” “them,” and “their”–which on their face are obviously plural forms–have a long history of use and an equally long history of criticism as well. Regardless of their long usage, though, doubt and confusion as to their grammatical validity always come to the fore. This is why careful writers and speakers in English, whether low or high in stature, studiously avoid this debatable usage not because they think it is patently wrong but because it might just distract the reader or listener from the point being made. As I observed in my column, however, President Obama clearly decided with very good reason that this drawback wasn’t as important as the need for forthright sentences and eloquent expression.

      As to the choice between “gender” or “sex” in a grammatical context, Edgar, I’ll take the former anytime. I’d rather that the discussion be confined to the grammatical class of words based on sex and other distinguishable characteristics (shape, social rank, manner of existence) than veer toward thoughts on sexually motivated phenomena or behavior.