• Where did Jesus get the other 23 chromosomes?

    55

    If you missed it in school, chromosomes are the very, very basic stuff of life. These microscopic chromosomes contain the instructions for proteins to multiply and combine in such ways as to make up your brain, your heart, everything in your body.

    Humans have 46 paired chromosomes, 23 from your father and 23 from your mother, the former contained in the sperm and the latter in the mother’s egg. When the sperm penetrates the egg, the two sets combine to produce your own chromosome, which you pass on to your children. (Different species have different numbers: cows have 30 pairs, chicken 39, flies 4, and bananas have 22.)

    This is not a theory, but a fact, and discovered only starting 1888, and developed into a rigorous science that for the first time in man’s 10,000 years of civilized existence explains in excruciating detail how life forms. No sage, no religious leader could have known about it, simply because the tool for discovering these – the microscope — was invented only in the 17th century.

    In this season during which a huge part of the world, Christendom celebrates the birth of its central figure Jesus Christ, and claims that he was both man and God, and born from a virgin, it should be interesting to ask the question: Who provided the other half?

    Mary provided half of Jesus’ 23 pairs of chromosomes; but who provided the other half? The Gospels say Joseph had not “known’ Mary, and that Mary remained a virgin, which means no male provided those 23 chromosomes.

    The Annunciation, ca.1644, by Philippe de Champaigne

    The Annunciation, ca.1644, by Philippe de Champaigne

    If it was God, or the Holy Spirit, as Catholic dogma would have it, the question will be more difficult: how did God “inject” his chromosomes into Mary’s womb? Did these materialize inside her, beamed down into her ala Star Trek teleportation —as medieval painter Philippe de Champaigne in fact suggests in his masterpiece “The Annunciation” (image above). But if that were the case, then God must have those chromosomes in a human body somewhere in his Heaven, or he wouldn’t have anything to teleport.

    There is just no escaping it. Humans and most creatures on earth (there are exotic species that have asexual reproduction though) have paired sets of chromosomes, one coming from the father and one from the mother.

    To say that Jesus was conceived and became a genuine human with only one set of 23 chromosomes, from Mary, without the other 23 chromosomes contributed by a father would be as ridiculous as claiming some human did not have a heart inside his chest, nor a brain inside his head. If he didn’t have the full pair of 23 chromosomes, the very definition of a man, he couldn’t have been human, but a creature like Superman from Krypton or a Na’avi from Pandora.

    Conundrum
    Or is the conundrum simply because humanity, when the Gospels were written and even up the 17th century, had different, even confused notions of sexual reproduction?

    That’s actually the topic of an article by Andrew Lincoln “How babies were made in Jesus’ Time” in the Nov.-Dec 2014 issue of my favorite magazine. Biblical Archaeology Review. Lincoln is current Professor of New Testament Studies in the University of Gloucestershire.

    Even before genetics and modern biology, most cultures, obviously from experience, indeed thought that sexual intercourse by which the liquid released by the male organ in orgasm called semen and impregnated inside the female’s sexual organ “somehow” created the fetus that would grow into a human being.

    But in contrast to modern biology, the ancients did not see this as the male’s sperm uniting with the female egg, to create a unity containing the “essences” of both parents. Rather, the process was thought to be something like a seed planted on a pot which would grow into a plant or a tree. The male provided the seed while the female the matter for life, thus the term “semen” comes from the Latin word seed.

    But in the patriarchal societies of most cultures, especially in the Middle East and then Europe, the male seed was raised to a higher pedestal, that it was really the “life force,” with the female’s fluids in her womb providing the gross matter for sustaining that life force.

    The great philosopher, St. Thomas Aquinas in that pillar of Catholic dogma Summa Theologia summarized humanity’s notions of human reproduction from classical antiquity until the start of the scientific age: “The female supplies the matter, while the male is the active principle of generation.”

    Practical purpose
    The notion had a practical purpose for the ruling classes in antiquity, as kings and heroes would claim that their fathers were deities, therefore they had the right to rule. Theseus, the first king of Athens, had Poseidon as his father. Romulus the legendary founder of Rome had Mars. One of the towering figures of antiquity, Alexander the Great, claimed his father was the Big Boss of gods, Zeus. The Roman emperors claimed they were descended from gods,  with Julius Caesar calling himself  Jupiter Julius.

    The Biblical Archaeology article even claims that Alexander’s case—having two “fathers” might have been the template for Jesus’ claims of divinity. Alexander thwarted the many claimants the throne to become Macedonian king as he was son of Philip, and therefore the legal successor. Yet as he conquered the great empires of that period, he claimed that he was the son of Zeus.

    Similarly, the Gospel writers claimed Jesus was the Messiah, or savior of the Jewish nation long prophesized, as he was as well, at least technically, the son of Joseph, whose lineage the Old and the New Testaments traced to King David. But he is also the Son of God, so that he will save all of humanity.

    “Evidently it was not unusual for ancient readers to entertain simultaneously two different stories about the origins of a great figure,” the article pointed out. “The other, suitable in the light of his later heroic achievements, involve a miraculous conception and envisaged him as a son of the gods.”

    It is easy to understand how the ancients including those during Biblical times thought how humans are created since even in this modern era, children have no notion that their parents must have sexual intercourse as the first step to create babies. Most children simply believe that “love” between their parents in some way make babies – that is, just as the Holy Spirit simply hovered over Mary to produce Jesus.

    Indeed even uneducated people in our country still have confused notions of sexual reproduction. A television episode last year by Korina Sanchez featured a teen-aged lady in the boondocks of Cebu province who claimed some troll (“dwende’) in their backyard fathered the baby she carried in her womb, simply by staring at her as he sat atop his mound.

    There are several theses about who Jesus’ real biological father was, as the Gospels were quite categorical that it wasn’t Joseph. But that for another column.

    tiglao.manilatimes@gmail.com
    FB: Rigoberto Tiglao

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    55 Comments

    1. GOD so love the world that he gave his begotten son JESUS CHRIST that those who believe in him will not perish but will have an everlasting life. Everything should be in Jesus Christ ways. People who knew the meaning of Christmas then everyday is a Christmas day. As we have our faith, we believe in GOD unquestionably. In everything there’s always the beginning and has all its end. Life is a gift and a privelege, we were given the freedom to know the difference between right and wrong but most people especially the politicians prefers the wrong due to greediness. Even the slogan of Daang Matuwid still goes to corruption. Reminder to all of us, we are all sinners and we pray that we’ll be forgiven for our sins thru Jesus Christ our Lord. But we have to remember that corruption is unforgiveable. Only GOD knows what is good for the Philippines and its people. GOOD LUCK to all of us. Wishing a Happy welcoming of the New Year 2015.

    2. The basic building blocks are not the chromosomes but the DNA. Scientists have discovered that more than 90% of our DNA is junk, meaning they have no obvious function and have somehow been deactivated. How did we get them then is one question. Scientists have also found out that many of these DNA, if activated, can actually give us superhuman qualities physically, intellectually and surprisingly even spiritually. They also see hopeful signs that these can be activated although they are years from knowing for sure. Clearly if Jesus was divine, its not impossible that he had more activated DNA than the ordinary mortal, but even more clearly, science is more mysterious than the Holy Trinity. So the question of Jesus chromosomes is not answerable because the science is not yet known. Instead of asking indirectly if Jesus was really divine or not, it is more relevant today to ask these questions instead: why was Jesus so enraged at the money lenders in the temple? Was it because they were in transgression of God’s injunction against usury? Why is usury being practiced in the Christian world but shunned in the Muslim world? Did Pontius Pilate merely succumb to pressure from the money lenders to crucify Jesus? Why does God consider usury a crime so vile that in the Koran he classifies usury as 10 times worse than fornicating with your own mother? Is the millennially long drawn-out battle between good and evil rooted in this lending money for interest? If so, is the devil winning? Finally, is the path to God found in science, or in edicts made after a political process called a synod?

    3. For men everything is impossible but with God nothing is impossible.
      Adam and Eve can be considered as having the male chromosomes only. why? Because Eve came from Adam, she was not created from different earth(soil). So if Adam and Eve became normal person after God created them (and not from the biological way), it is not impossible that God can make Jesus be conceived in the womb of a female. Jesus was born by a virgin as the fulfillment of the prophesy in the old testament. The chromosome issue is good and it actually helps us to believe the deity of Jesus. And as Christian I believe this chromosome issue is one thing that the Lord Jesus Himself will show us clearly when we meet Him personally in Heaven.

    4. Mr. Tiglao, during Ramadan, you should write a column that questions the veracity of Muhammad receiving revelations from Gabriel. That way, you can show you’re an equal-opportunity atheist.

    5. Really fascinating to read some of the comments here… People who are not answering the basic questions the article raised but rather just shouting “Stop thinking! Just believe.” or “That’s a problem for science (not mine, I’m not interested in that)”…

      It’s 2014, so seriously how can anyone who wants to be treated as an adult respond like that? For there is proof for science (like the number of chromosomes, the way [human] reproduction works and so on), but none whatsoever for a fantasy guy in the clouds. Don’t be childish, grow up!

    6. In God nothing is impossible. But if you are so bent on knowing about the chromosomes of Jesus Christ, be a Christian – and maybe God will give you the answer.

      • As a grown member of civil society your job is to be able to differentiate between reality and fantasy. Simply to “believe” in what others tell you and not asking questions in order to understand things is not an option.

    7. Korek ka dyan, Mr. Tiglao!

      (But, I’m sure, many pinoys will react and say, “just have faith!”

      :)

    8. Why make the assumption of 46 chromosomes?

      But I guess since you have already accepted as true many others would say not-really-real, you are okay to accept as true what would be non-science non-true.

    9. Anybody who has seen a soap-opera on TV can pick the real father of ‘Jesus’ (whose name the supposed ‘angel said was to be ‘Emmanual ~oops!) in a heartbeat.
      Even if one stretches a point and take the ‘cloning’ proposition seriously, the question remains: Where did he get the Y-chromosome,which is what defines a human MALE? Certainly not from Mary.
      Follow the story:-
      All her life Elisabeth tries to do her duty and produce children for Zeccharia ~ a high priest, an important, educated and rich man whose status is important everywhere. That she fails to do so is blamed on Elisabeth’s being ‘barren’, of course. Not only was that the contemporary wisdom, but also saves face for Zeccharia.

      Along comes Joseph (of Arimathea!!), a rich and important man who moves in the same social circle as Zeccharia…and one night after a few goatskins of wine Joseph ends up in bed with Liz; the ‘barren’ woman gets preggies.Hallejulia!! A miracle of god for Josheph’s loyal service for many years. Why, god even sends an angel down to confirm the ‘truth’ for the benefit of the public record.
      Needles to say, Joseph and Mary keep VERY quiet.
      But not entirely. Elisabeth tells her cousin Mary, who leaves her betrothed (Joseph the rather boring carpenter) and goes to live with Elisabeth during her confinement. Like any girl from the backwoods she quickly becomes besotted by the ‘high life’ among priests and rich, famous people ~ and finds no resistance when Joseph (of Arimathea!) slips into her bed one night….and ALSO impregnates her!
      Mary goes back to Joseph (the carpenter), and once again the angel puts in an appearance. Joseph doesn’t believe it, but takes a bribe to carry the can ~ and soon drops out of the picture
      Between age12-30Jesus is raised and educated by his real father, and finally buried in the family tomb.
      All too…

      • Anybody who has seen a soap-opera on TV can pick the real father of ‘Jesus’ (whose name the supposed ‘angel said was to be ‘Emmanual ~oops!) in a heartbeat.
        Even if one stretches a point and take the ‘cloning’ proposition seriously, the question remains: Where did he get the Y-chromosome,which is what defines a human MALE? Certainly not from Mary.
        Follow the story:-
        All her life Elisabeth tries to do her duty and produce children for Zeccharia ~ a high priest, an important, educated and rich man whose status is important everywhere. That she fails to do so is blamed on Elisabeth’s being ‘barren’, of course. Not only was that the contemporary wisdom, but also saves face for Zeccharia.

        Along comes Joseph (of Arimathea!!), a rich and important man who moves in the same social circle as Zeccharia…and one night after a few goatskins of wine Joseph ends up in bed with Liz; the ‘barren’ woman gets preggies.Hallejulia!! A miracle of god for Josheph’s loyal service for many years. Why, god even sends an angel down to confirm the ‘truth’ for the benefit of the public record.
        Needles to say, Joseph and Mary keep VERY quiet.
        But not entirely. Elisabeth tells her cousin Mary, who leaves her betrothed (Joseph the rather boring carpenter) and goes to live with Elisabeth during her confinement. Like any girl from the backwoods she quickly becomes besotted by the ‘high life’ among priests and rich, famous people ~ and finds no resistance when Joseph (of Arimathea!) slips into her bed one night….and ALSO impregnates her!
        Mary goes back to Joseph (the carpenter), and once again the angel puts in an appearance. Joseph doesn’t believe it, but takes a bribe to carry the can ~ and soon drops out of the picture
        Between age12-30Jesus is raised and educated by his real father, and finally buried in the family tomb.
        All too…

      • Good question too. According to ‘Luke’ Adam was the ‘son of god’ too. So not only was he Jesus’ older brother, but he faced the same problems.
        Moreover, it should be noted that, unless the ‘soul’ is found in men’s rib-bones, Eve was left without a soul ~ not having had
        the ‘spirit’ breathed into her. That means, among other things, that heaven will be female-free.
        I’m not sure I want to go.

    10. If I am reading this article correctly, writter Tiglao is attacking a foundational concept of Christanity on the day we celebrate our saviors birth. The aderents of the post modernist human secular philosophy/worldview, otherwise know as progessive socialists, have no shame. I am surpised that the Manilla Times published this offensive and insensitive article on Christmas day

      • insensitive maybe but it’s ok… God I believe is not offended with the question of Mr. Tiglao. We are in modern science era so question that were never asked before can possibly be asked. Remember even the intelligent Nicodemus also asked Jesus a controversial question back in that time(about born again experience). But the good thing is the bible is complete with arsenal to help the science prove that there are unexplained things that only the infinite God knows.

    11. I have agreed and supported almost all of your articles Mr. Tiglao but this time I would say that you are missing the truth that God is a powerful God and nothing is impossible to Him. In Isaiah 55:8, 9 the Bible tells us that, ““For my thoughts are not your thoughts, neither are your ways my ways,” declares the Lord. 9 “As the heavens are higher than the earth, so are my ways higher than your ways and my thoughts than your thoughts. Whether where did the other number of chromosomes came from….. it is science and modern science’s problem to know where it came from.

      • You err, sir. –> “God is a powerful God and nothing is impossible to Him.”
        There are plenty of examples of your error, but the classical one is:-
        ‘Can god create a huge rock; a rock so heavy that he cannot lift it?’
        If not, why not?

    12. Mr. Tiglao,

      The 46 chromosomes is for humans but Jesus is not 100% human so why would you expect him to have 46.

    13. Dear Mr. Tiglao,

      You ask where Jesus got His other 23 chromosomes. Let me ask you a question. Where did Adam get his 46 chromosomes? You may reason using Darwin’s theory of evolution. But down the line, the question which the theory never really answered will still be asked? How did life begin? The question is easily answered by those who believe. God is the source of all life. To those who do not believe, they are still lost with no answer.
      And by the same token, to those who believe, God provided the 23 other chromosomes since nothing is impossible to God and since He is the source of all life.

      A Joyful Christmas to you!

      Bobby Tordesillas

      • That’s (“How did life begin?”) a grab-all question asked by conditioned ‘Believers’.
        A more relevant question for the ‘Creator of Life’ is to ask for a universally-acceptable definition of ‘Life’ ~ particularly in terms of ‘the living god’ and ‘life after death’, etc.

      • In addition to what I said, since Jesus is True God and True Man, then He could have provided the 23 other chromosomes Himself. Actually, He did not even have to have another 23 chromosomes, since as God, He did not have to follow any biological or natural law. For instance, He could have 24 chromosomes, 23 from Mary and the Y chromosome from Himself as God.

    14. Dear Mr Tiglao and all the staff and columnist up to the janitors, MERRY CHRISTMAS AND A HAPPY NEW YEAR! Thanks to all of you for your daily news and columns.
      Respectfully…

    15. Human is a creation of God. Like Adam none of the chromosomes came from any human being. Jesus is created by God through holy spirit. Ang kaisipan ng Diyos ay di kayang pantayan ng sino mang tao.

    16. Ang Dios ay makapangyarihan at bukod tangi na siya lang ang nakakaalam.Kung may pananalig at pananalampataya ka sa Dios,walang dahilan na ikaw ay magduda sa kanyang kakayahan.

      Ang Dios sumaiyo habang buhay Mr.Tiglao

    17. I also wrote up the same similar topic about the pregnancy of Virgin Mary and the birth of our Lord Jesus Christ. On my blog, I don’t have any clipping to prove my write up but a simple question like “That what if Virgin Mary undergo artificial insemination that time” of course, nobody know what’s the meaning of if that time but since they cannot explain it they called it miracle and but in our time we called it science :) Well, I have this question that come up just right now, that maybe the reason Jesus was taken to heaven was God don’t want to test or human don’t have a chance to test or to know His DNA because that will be the big revelation in the entire history of mankind, just thinking…..

    18. vagoneto rieles on

      Understanding the ‘Virgin Birth’, let alone explaining it is way beyond my pay grade. But accepting and believing in it, to me, is a matter of my faith; and, ribs, sperm, eggs and chromosomes are irrelevant where faith is concerned. Have a good day Mr. Tiglao.

      • I totally agree. I am a medical professional and I just entrust everything in something beyond my realm. That “something” is my God and my faith. What does this article try prove or disprove afterall? That Tiglao is better than the rest of humanity?

    19. victor m. hernandez on

      Kaloka. Difficult to take. Have the eyes of faith. Mercy and Compassion rule to avoid perdition of Filipinos and the rest of humanity. Science may eventually explain it, but not in our lifetime. Meanwhile enjoy the ride. Merry Christmas to one and all.

      • Hmm… roman soldier. is that why many paintings would be in image of white European (and not Jewish or Arabic).

    20. The human intellect is not capable of understanding the nature of everything in the universe. There is a limit to what the human mind can comprehend, including mine and yours.

      • er… how do you arrive at that ‘understanding’ ??
        ie. How do you KNOW that we, at this present moment’ don’t understand “everything” and that seeking further understanding is a futile exercise?
        The same question applies to your assertion regarding the mind.

    21. sancho alconce on

      “If Jesus is the son of god, but also god himself, then he supposedly sacrificed himself to himself to save what he created from himself. He also, therefore, prayed to himself and begged himself not to require himself be crucified in order to appease himself and save the world from the wrath of himself.” – Anonymous

      • Jesus is the second person of the Trinity. He is God. As the Bible have said no animal sacrifice were enough to redeem us from our folly. That is why the Second person was born to us by a virgin and He was the perfect sacrifice to God. Meaning what came from God really appeased God. His human flesh will feel the hurts and sufferings at the time of His crucifixion that’s why He prayed if possible to take that burden away but nevertheless let the will of God be done.

    22. Leodegardo Pruna on

      The writer should have stuck to his expertise rather than discuss a subject which is a matter of faith. I would have enjoyed reading his commentary on politics, economics and social order rather than the issue of chromosomes a specialized area for scientists. God bless the Philippines.

      • and what would you think the writer’s expertise would be? how-to on graft/corruption of Pilipinas? Cybersecurity? The history of Reston eBola? Traffic gridlock? Land reform?

      • I suggest that everyone view ‘The Life of Brian’…and ‘The Meaning of Life’ to shed much light on these questions. (and more particularly the answers!)

    23. For sure God and the angels knew about what today is modern science, so isn’t it possible that artificial insemination was used on Mary without her knowledge, as she was put to sleep first? In relation to this idea of modern science in the bible, Moses was shown the miracle of the burning bush, where the bush was in flames but was not consumed by the fire. Today that is no longer a miracle as it is known as a hologram. When Jesus rose from the dead, Mary, his rumored wife, saw Him first and wanted to hug Him but Jesus stopped her with the words ‘touch me not’ (Rizal’s Noli Me Tangere). Why? When he showed himself to his disciples, they noticed something not quite right about him so to prove himself he walked on water. Both miracles can today be explained by holograms. A hologram looks very real but it cannot be touched as it is just a projection. There are many examples of modern science in the bible, and why not? Anything is possible if you are God, right?

      • …. and how does 21st century know that not an alien from another universe. Life would exist in other universe, and the chance is high that the other universe people will NOT look like Kris Aquino nor Ron Jaworski and can look more like… well… I don’t know. But look like Brad Pitt? Not likely.

    24. the punishment for an out of wedlock pregnancy was stoning to death of the woman, seems like a strong motivation for coming up with an immaculate conception yarn!
      Look for a discourse by eminent etymologist John Allegro, for a broad overview of how we came to be overwhelmed by the dissemination of misinformation by establishment churches…. and how it continues to this very day!… here com da Pope.

    25. MR. [Rigoberto] Tiglao’s column here lies in that bordering penumbra where science meets religion. It’s needed very much in our country where the degree of unhealthy fanaticism is rampant.
      It is one way to provoke us to think in scientific terms, instead of jumping into a band of fanatics. Hoping that the deeper message of this column penetrates the mind of our very serious looking fellow filipinos but refuse to think.

    26. Mr. Tiglao, have you heard of “clone or cloning? Here is the definition of cloning:

      “In biology, cloning is the process of producing similar populations of genetically identical individuals that occurs in nature when organisms such as bacteria, …
      ‎Human cloning – ‎Dolly (sheep) – ‎List of animals that have been … – ‎Molecular cloning”

      Also, have you seen the old movie The Boys in Brazil”? It is about cloning or producing
      identical men with genetically identical make up as the source of the clone, an ideal
      man according to Hitler. The movie was produced long before the cloning of “Dolly”, an ewe. The clones are all men according to the natural genetic principle. Dolly’s clone is a female too.

      Also a natural phenomenon is mutation. An individual can mutate by external forces such as radiation, chemical or spontaneous mutation that can be due to the enzymes anolmalous behavior.

      The problem that come to mind is … If Jesus is clone of Mary, he should be a female. The next question is .. Is Mary a female or a male? Or is Jesus really a male?

      During Jesus time, men and women wore long tunics. Only the beards diffentiate men from women. But there are males who are beardless by nature, and I supposed there wre women that have beards. St. John was always depicted like a beautiful woman. That is why there were suggestions that the beautiful man beside Jesus in the Last Supper by Leonardo da Vinci was Mary Magdalene. But again, there are men that look as beautiful and tender like women.

      The sexual anatomy of a person was never described in the bible. Even the depictions when Jesus was on the cross almost naked, his pubic part was hudden by a shroud.

      Mr. Tiglao, looking for the other 23 chromosomes may be futile, knowing that clones are naturally occurring.

      Who knows!

    27. The question is on human level of understanding that 1 + 1 = 2. You forgot the word omnipotent. God’s power is just too much to fathom by human being. That is why the birth of Christ is called a mystery. That is of course if you believe in God. Or try your luck with DNA to find the real father.

    28. mikhail hieronymus on

      This is the very point that I have been telling people who will listen to me to no avail. I have been accused of being a “smart aleck” and other “unsavory” names for having a different take on the standard belief about the virgin birth, etc.

      Even Pastors will just laugh off when I talked of this subject. So I just gave up talking about it because they think I am not a good Christian, etc.

    29. The question of the source of the other 23 chromosomes of Jesus, is one interesting point of view.
      If we look back to creation, God did not need two sets of chromosomes in creating Adam. So, if we have to look at it from scientific point of view, the same question can be said of Eve. Where did the other 23 chromosomes of Eve came from?

      • This is a good response.
        Not everything can be explained in science that is why one atheist Jennifer Fullwiler got converted to Catholism.

    30. I wonder what this author is trying to convey in his convoluted mixing of religion,science and mythology? Mr. Tiglao, if you are trying to entice huge readership by creating a sensation by your chose of the banner topic in this time of the year, nice try!
      There are things that are Godly where no man can match nor explain. For instance, science know what compose a human blood but it cannot create or produce blood simply because the ‘formula’ is Godly. Science cannot even ‘create’ a smallest simple leaf for that matter but is trying to mimic the creation of the universe by those useless CERN hadron collider in Europe and another in Long Island, New York.

      • Nag aral yan sa Ateneo kaya malamang ay nasa kanyang kaisipan pa rin ang mga aral ng mga Heswita. Nguni’t pag pasok ng dekada sitenta, isa sya sa mga naging haligi ng Kabataang Makabayan na naging panuntunan ang kaisipang MLMTT at diyalektikal materyalisim. Naturalmente, sa sinumang nahasa sa ganyang mala syensang pagiisip ay ang pananaliksik at pagtatanong sa mga pinagmulan ng mga bagay bagay at ang pagaaral sa mga kasalukuyang nakikita at pinaniniwalaan. Naghahanap lagi ito ng kongkretong batayan ng anumang kaalaman. Ito ay nakikita sa kanyang pagsusulat at sa malalim na pag analisa sa mga kasalukuyang takbo ng lipunan.

    31. Writer Tiglao’s understanding of theology is much better than what is taught by Iglesia ni Kristo or JIL. Writer Tiglao should think very much of having his own church. He has the gift.