Philippine low-carbon strategies in energy, water & food production

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Paper delivered on February 6, 2014 by Philippine Climate Change Commission head Heherson Alvarez at the 14th Delhi Sustainable Development Summit (DSDS), Ministerial Session 1, in New Delhi, India on February 6, 2014.

In November 8, 2013, my country encountered the most ferocious destruction of climate change. Super Typhoon HAIYAN wiped out the entire City of Tacloban and the adjoining region of Central Philippines. Haiyan killed more than 8,000 people, devastated 71,000 hectares of agricultural lands and an almost incalculable destruction of houses, public edifices and natural heritage sites. The agricultural damage alone is estimated at 3.7 billion pesos or $85 million, not including thousands of small fishing boats and the livelihood instruments of small fishermen.

We are deeply grateful to all world leaders, country representatives, and non-government personnel, for their humanitarian assistance as much as for their prayers. We have always been visited by an average of 20 typhoons annually over the decades, but our communities survived them unshaken. But, Super Typhoon Haiyan was a MONSTER!

We shall be facing even far more dangerous impacts of climate change in the years ahead as the heating of the earth rises, our needs for energy, water, and food will be escalating, with an expanding population of almost 99 million, the Philippines is the 12th most populated country in the world.


An archipelagic community of 7,100 islands with its narrow land masses fragmented by extensive river systems, and a coastline longer than that of the continental United States, we are indeed the third most vulnerable to the havocs of global warming and climate change.

Our capacity, not only for sustainability but immediate survival, as a community is imperiled. If in this “horse-race” between mitigation and adaptation, even if the world temperature is abated below that “point of no return,” but global heating is not abated soon enough, our country and many island communities could perish.

We are endowed with all alternative resources of energy: we are the second largest user of geothermal power. We are tropical and abundant with sunshine and bio-mass, criss-crossed by many rivers and surrounded by oceans. We have access to potentially abundant powerful water energy sources.

There are technology barriers to access these resources which amount to financial barriers for the exploitation of these alternative energy resources. But these technological and financial barriers could be overcome with creative determined policy on our transition towards a sustainable path of clean energy and development.

But the greatest of all barriers—that of fossil fuel—is almost insurmountable as it must be for nearly all countries of the world.

Coal and petroleum-based energy remains the cheapest in the market without the destructive externalities imputed into their cost. Policy planners take these carbon energy systems as the cheap and easy pathway towards energy growth and development.

Coal-fired plants, which operate across the Asian region, are the largest single source of carbon emissions. Coal-fired power plants, which account for more than 36 percent of carbon emissions currently in the Philippines, is projected to grow to 86 percent in 2030—16 years from today—which would be reducing alternative energy from 60 percent to a mere 14 percent of our total energy mix. Expanding coal use in my country, and in many parts of the world, will be very costly in terms of environmental ruin, the reduction of water supply and impairment of food system.

Many policymakers have taken the facile notion that fossil fuel lead to the easiest pathway to development.

We all know that this is a falsehood. Coal and fossil fuels are heavily subsidized and once the externalities of pollution and climate change costs are factored in, it is the most costly, nay, even the most destructive on our living earth.

The economic fallacy about coal is a formidable economic, political and psychological barrier that blocks the accelerated development of renewable energy. We must shape the policy instruments to overcome this formidable barrier. We should be transparent and candid about this great burden of fossil fuel and its terrible externalities, and manage to reduce it so that rationally it may have its minimum use for our fuel mix.

In summary, our goal of a low carbon world can be achieved only through sustained efforts, with appropriate incentives, and with determined policy changes that move governments toward low carbon strategies in power generation.

The Philippines is only a case study on the fate of the earth.

If we can summon the imagination and the will to diminish or entirely dismantle these barriers—especially that fossil barrier—the transition to a cleaner, healthier, and abundant safe energy future will be achieved. The Earth will not burn beyond 2 degrees centigrade and will flourish and endure into eternity. (End of speech)

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Editor’s note: While in New Delhi, Commissioner Alvarez gave the following statement to the Indian and international press on February 9, 2014

Externalities block accelerated use of renewable energy
New Delhi, India: The economic fallacy about coal and petroleum-based energy as the cheapest in the market is the formidable economic and psychological barrier that blocks the accelerated development of renewable energy, not just in the Philippines, but all over the world.

This was stressed by Philippine Climate Change Commissioner Heherson Alvarez in a speech during the 1st Ministerial Session of the 14th Delhi Sustainable Development Summit in Taj Palace Hotel, here in New Delhi, India.

Speaking before leaders, ministers and delegates from 40 countries, Alvarez said that “policy makers have the facile notion that carbon energy systems, like coal, are the easiest pathway towards energy growth and development.”

“But, coal and petroleum-based energy remains the cheapest in the market without the destructive externalities imputed into their cost,” Alvarez explained.

He said that coal and fossil fuels are heavily subsidized and factoring in the externalities of pollution and climate change costs, these energy systems would be the “most costly and, at the same time, most destructive to the environment.”

According to Alvarez, coal-fired power plants which operated across the Asian region are the largest single source of carbon emissions, the main culprit for global warming and climate change.

“Expanding coal use in all parts of the world will be very costly in terms of environmental ruin, reduction of water supply and impairment of food system,” he added.

Alvarez said that although, “The Philippines is endowed with all alternative resources of energy, the second largest user of geothermal power and have access to potentially abundant powerful water energy sources, coal-fired power plants account for more than 36 percent of carbon emissions in the country.” “The number is projected to grow to 86 percent in 2030 reducing alternative energy use from the current 60 percent to a mere 14 percent,” he warned.

Alvarez, who was personally invited by Dr. Rajendra Pachauri, Chair of the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change IPCC) and director-general of The Energy and Resource Institute (Teri) organizer of the event, to address the 14th DSDS, said that “technology and financial barriers to access alternative energy resources could be overcome through sustained efforts, with appropriate incentives, and with determined policy changes towards low carbon strategies in power generation.”

‘Our capacity, not only for sustainability but immediate survival, as a community is imperiled. If this “horserace” between mitigation and adaptation, even if the world temperature is abated below that ‘point of no return,’ but global heating is not abated soon enough, our country and many island communities could perish,” he cautioned.

“We must be transparent and candid of the great burden of fossil fuel and its terrible externalities, and manage to reduce it so that rationally it may have its minimum use for our fuel mix and the transition to a cleaner, healthier, abundant safe energy future will be achieved” Alvarez concluded.

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