• Roxas as guilty as Aquino for SAF massacre

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    While he has incredibly managed to keep his head low in the raging controversy, Interior and Local Government Secretary Mar Roxas is as guilty as his boss, President Benigno S. Aquino 3rd, for the massacre of 44 police commandos at Mamasapano.

    He was fully informed of the operation of the Special Action Forces
    (SAF) on Jan. 25 as early as 7:43 a.m. Yet, he didn’t lift a finger in the crucial hours of that morning and early afternoon to ensure the safety of the commandos.

    If he has any decency left, Roxas should resign his post.
    Consider the facts that have been gradually unearthed, especially the text messages he got and received that day.

    On the second day of the Senate hearing about the tragedy, when Senator Nancy Binay asked Aquino’s security officials what time they informed him that there was a firefight in Mamasapano, Roxas said around 11 a.m., “there was a report of something happening in Maguindanao, but it was not clear.”

     Roxas at the Senate hearing. His text at 10:36 a.m.: “Is there any video or foto or DNA or personal effects retrieved to verify his death?”  But told the Senate: “We were out of the loop.”

    Roxas at the Senate hearing. His text at 10:36 a.m.: “Is there any video or foto or DNA or personal effects retrieved to verify his death?”  But told the Senate: “We were out of the loop.”

    In the following hearing though, Roxas changed his statement to say that he was informed earlier in the morning.  He explained, though: “To me there was no sense of urgency because I receive reports of similar encounters [every day], until after the report came that the number of casualties was mounting. ” He didn’t even say exactly what time he told the President — who was just beside him as they went around Zamboanga City.

    He changed his statement the next hearing day, and even had the gall to protest Binay’s reminder for him to tell the truth. He said he forwarded to Aquino a message about the firefight he received from Western Mindanao Police Director General Charles Calima at 7:43 a.m. Asked in the hearing what was the President’ reply, Roxas said: “Thank you.”

    He even claimed in one hearing in order to concoct his basic defense posture of not knowing anything about the event:  “Masasabi lang namin kung anong alam namin. We were cut out. Ano ma-re-report namin?”  (We could only tell the President what we knew. But we were cut out of the loop. What could we report then?”)

    Roxas’ text messages submitted to the Philippine National Police’ s Board of Inquiry show that he was lying, and he was fully informed of what was happening  that morning by Acting PNP Chief Leonardo Espina.

    He was aware of the seriousness of the incident by mid-morning, that there were as many as 20 casualties, as Espina reported.  He was lying that he didn’t inform the president because there was “no sense of urgency” in the reports.

    What is shocking, if you read Roxas’ text messages, was he didn’t seem to be concerned about Espina’s reports of casualties. In his 10:36 a.m. message, he was more concerned over whether there was “any video or foto or DNA or personal effects (of Marwan) to verify his death”
    Roxas clearly should already be indicted for perjury, for obstruction of justice, and more importantly, for criminal negligence.

    Read the text messages below and you would get the same conclusion as I did that Roxas is as guilty as Aquino for the deaths of the 44 commandos for the following reasons:

    He knew about the seriousness of the operation by mid-morning, yet he didn’t alert the President of the urgent need to call for a crisis conference to ensure that the Special Action Forces return unharmed – which is his duty as DILG chief.

    He is in charge of the Philippine National Police (PNP), and next to the President is the most responsible for the safety of his men, the policemen of the PNP.   Yet, he did nothing during those crucial hours when his intervention was crucial — for instance, he could have told Armed Forces Chief of Staff Gregorio Catapang, who was beside him in Zamboanga City that day, to make sure that the army help the SAF.

    If Aquino was paralyzed into inaction during those crucial hours, it was Roxas’ responsibility as DILG chief, to urge his boss to act, or call for a meeting of the security officials with or without his boss — who were all with him that day — to ensure the SAF’s safety.  He didn’t.

    Was it because he knew that it was the exclusive operation of then suspended police chief Alan Purisima — Aquino’s “man” whom he hated and wanted removed so badly — and therefore, he felt no responsibility over it?  I suspect he even thought: “Good, Purisima would be blamed and stopped from getting back his position.”

    Roxas didn’t even try to call SAF head Getulio Napeñas during those crucial hours to ask him personally about the SAF troops’ situation.  It was Napeñas who communicated with him in a text message.  And his reply to Napeñas (translated from Pilipino): “Keep calm and keep your head. We will not abandon the troops.”

    But that exchange of messages was at 7:12 p.m., hours after the 44 commandos were massacred.

    ROXAS’ TEXT MESSAGES ON JAN. 25

    7:43 a.m. – Police Western Mindanao Director Charles Calima to Roxas:
    “From Director SAF in the field, sir-re on-going opns agst high value targets >>> FOR: OIC PNP FROM DSAF: update re opns against HVTs. Based on the report of the ME, JI@Marwan was neutralized but the body was left behind due to heavy volume of fire and 1 wounded SAF trooper. The containment blocking force was engage 2 kms east if Tukalanipao GC 6800665717. There was heavy firefight & SAF troops suffered casualties. Extraction is on-going & support from the AFP was requested.“

    7:45 a.m. Roxas to Calima: “Noted re SAF Operation. Going to Zambo now. Please get more details re SAF Operation.“

    7:46 a.m. Roxas to PresideNt Aquino: “Sir, just received this. Am getting more details.”

    7:48 a.m. Aquino to Roxas: “Thank you.”

    10:34 a.m. Espina to Roxas: “Member of Jemaah Islamiyah reportedly neutralized in Mamasapano (txt msg from DSAF rcvd on 7:34AM 25 Jan). OOA 2:30AM, Jan 25, 2015, PNP SAF Troopers supported by Maguindanao PPO.”

    10:36 a.m. Roxas to Espina: “Ok noted since Marwan body reportedly left behind, is there any video or foto or DNA or personal effects retrieved to verify his death.”

    10:38 a.m. Espina to Roxas:  “Am asking Dir SAF now sir.”

    10:40 a.m. Roxas to Espina: “PNoy getting other reports that are conflicting with each other. Example: 160 daw SAF, 20 daw hostiles so why did they retreat eh 8:1 ang ratio.

    Espina to Roxas:  “Yes Sir. Sir from Dir SAF: Affirmative sir, pictures including DNA samples.”

    10:42 a.m. Roxas to Espina: “Ah good. And something to compare it so we can verify.”

    Espina to Roxas: “Copy po sir. Relayed to Dir SAF dir. Sir. from Dir SAF: Sir the hostilities in the area are much more than our troops & the nearby mixed armed groups were quick to reinforce.”

    12:28 p.m. Roxas to Espina: “Anyway, linawin lang kung ano talaga storya. I know “fog of war” effect so pls have them sit and ikwento nila sa isang professional na debriefer/investigator”

    4:09 p.m. Espina to Roxas: “Sir FM Gen Rusty Guerrero, Cmdr Westmincomm >> FM Gen Galvez, CHR GPH CCCH: Proceeding na kami sa area sir. The Joint CCCH IMT and AHJAG with teh LGU’s will retrieve the reported 26 cadavers on both sides of the river (Note: Sir, I asked him if there was coord made with them on the opns. Wala din daw sir coord sa afp. Walang nakakaalam ng opn except SAF sir)”

    6:32 p.m. Roxas to Espina and PDDG Marcelo Garbo Jr.: “Hi Dindo (cc Garbo). Meron bang concept of operation ito. Where would it be. Pls look for it. Btw as of now as per Westmincomm, death toll has reached 32.”

    6:32 p.m. Napeñas to Roxas: “Sir good pm. The original strength we prepared for this opn was 252 then we increased the strenth to 382 based on the guidance to increase force to be utilized. The target Marwan was confirmed dead by PSUPT TRAIN & got pictures & DNA sample. On the extraction lawless elements engaged the SAF troops.”
    6:51 p.m. Roxas to Napeñas: “Hi Leo this is Mar. Got ur message.

    Tanung. Per ur text. Of the 382 total force, roughly 70 are either dead (32) or being pursued and still in the field (36). What happened to the balance of 310 or so?”

    7:00 p.m. Napeñas to Roxas: “Sir the remaining troops were sent to rescue the pers being pursued by the enemies together with the Army 7 rest were on a buffer zone to prevent the extraction position & exfil route.”

    7:12 p.m. Roxas to Napeñas: “OK. Keep calm and keep ur head. ‘Di natin pababayaan tropa natin. PNoy gave guidance to AFP Westmincom.”

    tiglao.manilatimes@gmail.com
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    39 Comments

    1. All these trash talkers are saying seem to claim that they are far more intelligent than the involved officials. They even reject sober and moderate stances. I suggest that they themselves go to the battlefield and prove their prowess. This can be likened to a chess game. The spectator would always gibe at the player when he is slow to move or moves wrongly. But when the spectator happens to be the player, he moves exactly as the player he was gibing at. Why don’t you run as president or senator so that you can prove your worth. Or might as well you are into demolition job. I admire Mr.Tiglao for his insightful and hard hitting articles but the fact that he does not see the brighter side of his subject person and only inclined to see the negative side to please his like-minded drooling readers, it is sad to say they are all inebriated

    2. As the Commander in Chief it is the responsibility of the president to admit the success or failure of the operation. As a leader he must face his failure. People will understand and accept it. But why is he denying and lying about the truth. I think he is afraid to answer why he order the stand down of the supporting troops. He cannot cover up the fact that the BBL is more important to him to get a Novel Prize Award than the lives of the 44 SAF.

    3. roxas and espina were not left out of the loop. they both knew about the operation. espina was informed early am of sunday that the troops are being shot at so called guerrero and asked him if he could send his troops to help the SAF but guerrero stood by the order of aquino of not to reinforce so as not to jeopardize the peace talk with the malaysian people. who is roxas fooling?

    4. If this operation was successful no one can beat Mar Roxas detailing the firefight including the number of bullets and caliber used. He will even detail the exact location of the firefights including elevation of positions. When it failed, Mar suffered amnesia including Pnoy. I hope they will not blame Gma for tipping the MILF.

    5. Commander James on

      44 Filipino lives wasted!

      Who is to blame? The incumbent President!

      The Powers and Authority of the Office of the Philippine President must be suspended from the incumbent to prevent further wastage of Filipino lives.

    6. Roldan Guerrero on

      What happened to GIBO Teodoro courtesy of GMA will be repeated to ROXAS courtesy of BSA. Roxas` dreams of becoming a president has gone with the winds.

    7. Surely, the next President will include Senyor Kho Rheena to be indicted. The mama’s boy that he is, he has lost all opportunities to show leadership qualities. From DOTC to DILG, there is no exemplary display of statesmanship, much less, wisdom. But even as a eunuch, P30M will still be a good incentive for any girl to to bear with an imbecile.

    8. AND THESE HORDE OF BUMBLING CLOWNS ARE YOUR ELECTED AND CHOSEN LEADERS…sorry Philippines, you are getting deeper down in deep shit of rotten politics, being pushed down in more deep shit of politics.

    9. Why should I give credence to this article, ever since this writer had an axe to grind with Pnoy’s administration. Obvious na Binay yaran!

    10. The blame game the media are playing is a two edge sword. What this columnist really wants is to deviate the attention of the public from the Binay’s corruption investigation by the Ombusman. Remember this columnist financial God father is VP Binay. And the worst scenario they want to paint is Pnoy the inutil president has to resign. Bingo under the constitution who is the successor ?

    11. Carl Cid Inting on

      It’s asking too much for Mar Roxas to have any shame. After all, he was dumped by Aquino during the presidential elections in favor of the ‘NoyBi’ tandem. The fact that Aquino was riding on two horses would have been enough to break relations with Aquino. But Roxas has no shame. Then, after his disastrous performance at DoT and, later, as DILG chief during the Zamboanga siege and the Typhoon Yolanda disaster, Roxas should have resigned if he had any shame. But Roxas has no shame. Purisima was installed by PNoy as PNP chief to overshadow Roxas and in order to prevent Roxas from fully controlling the PNP. That was another slap to Roxas’ face. Mamasapano was just par for the course for Roxas. Never mind if he was kept out of the loop. Roxas will stick around like a silly dog because he has no shame.

    12. Huling huli si Roxas sa mga kasinungalingan nya.He was informed about mounting casualties yet he didn’t even bother to ask what help should be needed for the troops.Mas inalala pa nya ang video footage ni Marwan.Kala nya makakalusot sya sa alibi nyang Wala syang alam sa operation.Tigilan mo na talaga ang ambisyon mong maging presidente.Ngayong unti unti ng lumabas ang mga text messages nyo,buking ka na.wondering also why they chose txt msng as means of communication instead of talking on the phone in such a sensitive operation?

    13. Vicente Penetrante on

      Guiltier, because he always steps aside for Aquino to have his way, including the wish to remain president. And spoiler!

    14. a leader should make a decision… right or wrong, most of the times decision of an experienced leader is right, but when it is wrong it should be accepted… that makes you a better leader and will be respected by your peers

    15. Time on target….yan ang napag kasunduan nung tatlong itlog sa itaas ng pamunuan sa operation/oplan exodus.That is what killed the troops in Mamasapano.If we are to identify who are the primary persons responsible for the failure in the last half of the mission it will be just the big three on top of the command.The rest are ripple effect of the time on target approach.The big three altered the chain of command and Roxas and Espina will have to go through shock period and anger for what the President put them through…that is if we emphatize and put ourselves in their shoes.

    16. 10:42 AM… (message from Napeñas through Espina to Roxas) “Sir the hostilities in the area are much more than our troops & the nearby mixed armed groups were quick to reinforce.”

      12:28 PM… Roxas to Espina: “Anyway, linawin lang kung ano talaga storya. I know “fog of war” effect so pls have them sit and ikwento nila sa isang professional na debriefer/investigator”

      This part interests me because it is very revealing.

      The gap between these two messages is all of 1 hour and 46 minutes. This was also about the time when the battle was actually at its deadliest, when the troop was being cornered and slaughtered

      Yet Roxas was saying it was ‘fog of war” effect, meaning guni-guni lang ni Napeñas.

    17. sabi ko na e. sabit din talaga si boy pickup. ang galing magtago sa background. mukhang natuto sa dami nyang sabit. pero as the saying goes, you cannot hide the truth and the truth will come out.
      sa pagkagustong maging presidente nitong si boy pickup, lahat ay gagawin nya pati ang pagtakip sa mga palpak ni boy sisi. pero sa kanyang pagtatakip kay boy sisi, sya naman ang sumasabit sa mga aksyon nyang ginagawa. based on what tiglao printed as text messages of mar aka boy pickup, alam nya ang sityasyon at nangyayari sa mga saf in almost real time. so mukhang kasama sya ni boy sisi sa hindi pagbigay ng ayuda sa mga naiipit na saf at humantong sa masscacre ng saf44

    18. On Jan26 briefing on video, Napenas was trying to elaborate on the participation of Pnoy when Roxas immediately cut him off saying “This is not the time to”…uttering some inaudible words at the end which seems to me as trying to prevent Napenas from revealing further info damaging to AFP in general and to Pnoy in particular!

    19. What you analysts fail to recognize is that in the heat of a battle the president and those under him who were not privy to the implementation of the plan of action should leave everything to the military personnel involved to act as they seem fit.

      In the planning stages of the operation as in the case of the raid on Bin Laden and the failed rescue attempt in freeing the hostages in Iran the only involvement of the president and his staff is when to say go and and when to stop the operation at anytime. As to when and how to move the troops around the military officers in charge of the operation are the only ones decide. The failure to implement the course of action is in the heads of the military commanders.

      To blame the president and other non military personnel for the failure of the operation
      is ludicrous. So stop this nonsense of asking the president and others to resign their positions because of the failure of the military in its operation.

      Fritz Acuna
      Guam, USA

      • Leandro Aragoncillo on

        Mr. Acuna, do you have an understanding of what had happened for the last 45 days or so in Mamasapano? You said that “the only involvement of the president and his staff is when to say go and and when to stop the operation at anytime.” What do you make of PNoy and Roxas’ actions pointing the blame on officers and enlisted men who had placed their lives on the line to save others? How would you explain to the families of the SAF troops that their actions were due to their own fault? Are you familiar with the term “accountability?” Read what Carter, Reagan and others did when push come to shove. Come to the Philippines and share your views to those who have lost their husbands, brothers, or uncles. Until then, please keep your comments to yourself because they are not helping at all. God bless.

      • concerned citizen on

        I don’t think you understand all the facts. The one whom the president put in charge of the operation was a suspended police officer. From that point alone, the president was already guilty. It even complicated the matter because that suspended chief told the SAF director that he’d be the one to inform the AFP chief, and to keep the whole operation a secret from the other relevant authorities until it was already ongoing. When asked in the Senate hearing why he didn’t inform the AFP chief, as he promised he’d do, he said he couldn’t because he was currently suspended. It was doomed from the start. Besides, there’s info that the prez actually gave the AFP commanders an order to stand down and not to engage the MILF to rescue the SAF troopers, so as not to endanger the peace process, as per the advice of Sec Deles, the chief peace negotiator.

      • fritz, the military was not involved, and that is exactly the failure of PNoy and Purisima, read and know your facts. assuming Purisima is not a factor, can you imagine the gap of position between PNoy and Napenas? That gap showed that PNoy micromanage the project.

    20. Parepareho lang silang palpak lahat, from COC, DND Chief, PNP Chief, Chief of Staff. Itong mga security officials dapat mapanagot sa pagkamatay ng 44 SAF Commandos. Lahat sila kasama sila Deles at Ferrer traidor sa Inang Bayan. Dapat lang na mag resign sila lahat, NOW! Any minute they stay longer in their positions are very disastrous for our soldiers and our people.

      • Correction: CIC pala as in bobo na Commander in Chief. Mas mahal niya ang mga MILF kaysa sa mga anak niyang mga sundalo. Mahalaga lang ang kanyang legacy at ang image. Kahit unconstitutional na ang BBL inendorso pa rin niya sa kongreso katulad ng DAP at maraming lump sums sa budget. Ang latest na palpak ay ang pagbili nila ng 9 or 13 helicopters sa Germany na matagal ng phased-out sa kanila worth 1.2 billion pesos, inoperable at wala ng mabili na piyesa. Marami nang ginawang palpak ang incompetent na Presidente like MRT mess, rice smuggling, port congestion, abnormal spikes in prices of rice, garlic, onions, etc.

    21. Looks Pnoy, Roxas. Napenas and Catapang are all guilty of gross incompetence and completely incomprehend the crisis evolving during the morning of Jan 25th. They sound more concerned of the identification of the corpse of Marwan than the the SAF forces being slaughtered by overwhelming numbers of MILF and BIFF, during the morning ambush. While the SAF forces being killed was mounting during that morning, Roxas, Pnoy, Napenas and Espina did not relay to Catapang, who was with them in Zamboanga, the need for AFP unit assault battalion to go to the area of the firefight to assist and rescue the beleguered SAF Forces. It looked the coordination among these officials were all out of urgency and seem in chaotic manner that nobody seem to had an actual grasp or picture of what was happening! Pnoy was informed but was paralyzed to react to order AFP counter-attack and rescue and instead said “Thank you” to Roxas text. Roxas himself did not show his leadership by taking over the dire massacre situation in that morning since his “men” (PNP SAF forces) were being slaughtered. Gazmin, the Secretary of Defence. Was also with Pnoy, Roxas,Catapang and Espina in Zamboanga, and must also be aware of what was going on!
      It is, therefore, so tragic to have this kind of heads of governmental agencies (president, DILG, AFP, Defense, and PNP). So uncoordinated among themselves to come up with a counteroffensive assault and rescue of the seiged SAF forces. They all have the blood of the brave fallen 44 SAF forces in their hands and they must answer for it!

      • concerned citizen on

        I’m not sure about Napenas’s guilt because he followed Purisima’s orders only because it was the CIC who made him in charge of the operation despite the fact that he was on suspension. From what I know, soldiers are taught to always obey their superior’s orders.

    22. Venerando Desales on

      I really wonder why a major operation, such as the Mamapasano, the PNP, AFP, Secretary Roxas and the President used text messages instead of radio or voice calls on cellphones. They could have understood each other had they used voice calls. When Osama bin Laden was taken, all of President Obama’s pertinent staff, cabinet members, and advisers were at the Op Center! Such a cavalier attitude of those starring in the Mamapasano fiasco is really an eye opener for which the Filipino electorate should get serious in choosing their representatives in government. It is high time to pass the anti dynasty law and the anti vote buying law. We really do not have true and honest elections. Command votes in all classes of voters from category C to D are fueled by money.

    23. Leodegardo Pruna on

      Roxas is more than to blame, if not equally blamed with P-Noy, of the tragedy because being the alter ego of the P-Noy he was supposed to be on the front line and on top of the situation. By being left out is not an excuse but rather a reason for him to resign his post. The fact is he is a consistent liar as gleaned from his statements. God bless the Philippines.

    24. And this is the man who wants to run for president? I think, having had the awful experience of Benigno, we should make sure that we do not have to go through anymore of the same disappointments. As far as I am concerned, I do not want anything to do with the current form of government, nor do I want the same group of incompetent, selfish, unconcerned, individuals to be in any elective office, ever again.
      Sawang-sawa na ako sa mga taong gusting mag serbisyo daw sa mga mamamayan. Puro sinunganling ang nga nananalo. At nananalo lang dahil sa pandaraya. Puro walang silbi at corrupt ang ating mga politiko at politika. Tama na. Husto na.

    25. Do you believe the first lie told? Mar knew nothing about the operation until it was launched. Don’t you think Aquino told his good friend he would keep him out of it to protect his presidential bid in 2016?

    26. In fairness to Pres.Aquino and Sec. Mar Roxas, the Mamasapano incident is just one of the battles we have encountered with our soldiers against the Muslims. In war are many battles, to win the war involves many battles to fight. We won in the Zamboanga battles, but this time we lost in Mamasapano. The blame is on the foot soldiers who did the fighting, not the higest commander, in fairness the sargeant or the captian are the one in command who should take the resposiblity on the success or failure of a given operation. Now we are faced with the biggest battle to win the war…THE APPROVAL OF THE BBL.

    27. sonny dela cruz on

      What did Espina did when he learned of what’s happening in the firefight that morning as early as 10:36 in the morning being the oic of the pnp. I believe there is no more decency or professionalism of these officers right now. Those 44 SAF were sacrificed and died in vain. The question is, can they still sleep for what they did to the 44SAF? Look, what Officer Reyes did, he committed suicide and died as an honorable officer and a gentleman, when he was involved in a corruption charges during the Arroyo administration. Don’t expect anything good from these kind of people, especially the President of the Philippines.

    28. Where liars get together, they support each other’s lies, until they self-destruct themselves.

    29. Leandro Aragoncillo on

      Effective communications may be the most important factor in achieving and maintaining situational awareness, as in the case of the Mamasapano incident. Based on the partial exchange of text messages between Napenas, Espina, Roxas, and PNoy, it is exceptionally difficult to understand the defense of DILG Secretary Mar Roxas and the President, about not having the full grasp of the ongoing military operations in Mamasapano. For non-participants like the public, the rule of “not-knowing” the consequences of the military actions taken is “normal.” But not these government officials who are resorting to an “alibi” of not being fully informed of the situation.

      PNoy and Roxas knew of the Mamasapano operation beforehand. The rule of thumb in any military operation suggests that “when the information we need is confusing or unclear, protocol dictates that we must clarify or to fill in the missing pieces before proceeding.” But, since the president resorted to the use of improper procedure to begin with, by employing the services of suspended PNP Chief Purisima and not informing the AFP to assist the SAF troops in the event of any untoward incident, PNoy demonstrated poor judgment. Good decisions equal good judgment; poor decisions equal poor judgment. And in this case, PNoy and Roxas exhibited poor decisions and poor judgment.

      The Philippine lawmakers and Senate must subpoena the “full exchange of text messages” between these public officials in order for the public to know the truth. There were noticeable gaps in the exchange of text messages, which could provide critical elements of information about what went on during and/or after the mission.

      Our only advice to PNoy and Roxas: “be open to the possibility that you can make poor judgments.” The Filipinos are the most forgiving people in the world. To move into the healing stage, both PNoy and Roxas must step forward and admit that they have made poor decisions at the outset and they are opening up themselves to the process of correcting these errors. The SAF families and the rest of the nation demand the truth; they deserve an honest and transparent government.

    30. No way this text exchange can fool me into believing this was all of it. What kind of fool will buy something like this. It’s as shallow as an ABS-CBN show.

      Right from the start it was obvious, Roxas was hiding a lot of things. This text exchange further proves it.

    31. Bugok talaga itong mga official natin,parang panahon ng hapon kung mag-usap!wala ka man lang naramdam pagkabahala sa mga nag-uusap!hindi man lang. Nabangit ang kalagayan ng mga SAF kung nasa ligtas na kalagayan!kukulo ang dugo mo habang binabasa mo,si marwan lang ang nasa isip nitong si Roxas!
      Wala yata ang text kay Aquino at purisima?mahirap mabuo ang buong estorya!

    32. Shocking, indeed. These two have a lot to answer for. Aquino, by all accounts, is a mental case. But what is Roxas’s excuse?