The White House pressed Chinese President Xi Jinping on Friday (Saturday in Manila) to expand his non-militarization pledge to cover the entire West Philippine Sea (South China Sea), despite Beijing’s recent military activity in the area.
Daniel Kritenbrink, senior director for Asian affairs at the National Security Council, spoke amid rising tensions between the two countries over China’s deployment of surface-to-air missiles, radar gear, air strips and fighter jets on an islet there.
During a state visit in September, Xi insisted that “China does not intend to pursue militarization” in the Spratly Island chain—known as Nansha in Chinese.
The islands are claimed in part or whole by Brunei, China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam.
“We think it would be good if that non-militarization pledge, if he (Xi) would extend that across the entire South China Sea,” Kritenbrink told a forum at the Center for Strategic and International Studies.
“We’re going to encourage our Chinese friends and other countries in the region to refrain from taking steps that raise tensions.”
China claims almost the whole of the area—through which a third of the world’s oil passes—while several other littoral states have competing claims, as does Taiwan.
“This is an incredibly important waterway through which much of international trade flows,” Kritenbrink said.
“We are concerned that China has taken a number of unilateral steps over the last several years that we think raise tensions in the region and are destabilizing.”
The Asian giant is using dredgers to turn reefs and low-lying features into larger land masses for runways and other military uses to bolster its claims of sovereignty.
Earlier this week, US Pacific Command chief Admiral Harry Harris warned that China was changing the “operational landscape in the region.” He has called for more flyovers and patrols.
“Short of war with the United States, China will exercise de facto control of the South China Sea,” Harris said.
Kritenbrink also urged China to respect an international court’s decision due later this year on Manila’s dispute with Beijing over territorial claims in the South China Sea.
Kritenbrink said he expected the upcoming ruling by the Permanent Court of Arbitration to be “extremely important” because it will mark the outcome of a process that allows countries to use peaceful legal means to pursue disputes.
China does not recognize The Hague-based court’s authority, but it has ratified the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea at the center of the case.
“When that ruling comes out, it will be binding on both parties,” Kritenbrink said.
“That will be an important moment that all of us in the region should focus on.”
Asean leaders tackle China
China’s recent artificial island-building and fortification of its garrison is disputed areas was among the pressing political and security challenges that ASEAN foreign ministers discussed when they met in Vientiane, Laos Saturday, ASEAN diplomats interviewed by Kyodo News said.
One diplomat told Kyodo News that ministers from the Association of Southeast Asian Nations are “seriously concerned” by recent and ongoing developments in the South China Sea.
Specifically, ASEAN sources said the ministers had frank discussions about the land reclamation and escalation of activities in the disputed sea, saying “these assertive moves erode trust and confidence, increase tension and may undermine peace, security and stability in the region.”
Charles Jose, a spokesman for the Philippine Department of Foreign Affairs, told a news conference in Manila on Tuesday that the Philippines will focus on maritime security, saying that China’s construction of islands in the disputed waters has heightened tensions.
Jose said that reports claiming Beijing has positioned surface-to-air missiles in the disputed territory in the Paracel Islands chain are a cause of concern.
“Of course all these things raise our concern and its effect on freedom of navigation, over-flight and unimpeded flow of commerce. In this meeting we will continue to express our concern with the developments in the South China Sea,” Jose said.
Laos, this year’s ASEAN chairman, was expected to issue a press statement at the end of the day-long retreat Saturday.
“There are ongoing discussions and consultations on whether to include in the press statement a line that says that ministers reaffirmed their commitment to non-militarization and self-restraint in the conduct of activities in the South China Sea,” an official source said.
As of Thursday night, an ASEAN official said the draft press statement still contains paragraphs on maritime security and the South China Sea “that may or may not be there (in the final statement).”
Like in past meetings, the ministers are expected to stress the importance of maintaining peace, security, stability, and freedom of navigation in and over-flight above the South China Sea.
ASEAN officials said the ministers will again “emphasize the need to enhance mutual trust and confidence, exercise self-restraint in the conduct of activities and avoid actions that may further complicate the situation” in the disputed sea.
The ministers are also expected to underscore the importance of the full and effective implementation of the Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea that China and the 10-member ASEAN signed in 2002, according to the officials.
Another ASEAN official said that ASEAN wants “substantive development” and “an expeditious establishment” of the code of conduct, a binding code aimed at reducing the risk of conflict in the disputed sea that ASEAN and China have been trying to hammer out since efforts to reopen talks began in 2012.
The overlapping territorial and maritime disputes involving China and four ASEAN members —Brunei, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam—have divided ASEAN on how to deal with the issue.
On January’s terror attacks in Jakarta, the draft said the ministers will again reaffirm “ASEAN’s commitment to working with the international community to further intensify its cooperation to combat terrorism in all its form and manifestations, regardless of their motivation, wherever, and by whom.”
Four of the South China Sea’s six claimants—Brunei, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam—are members of the 10-nation ASEAN that also includes Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand and Singapore. Taiwan is also a claimant.
The South China Sea is essential to the global economy. Up to 50 percent of the world’s oil tanker shipments, and over half of the world’s merchant tonnage, passes through the South China Sea.