• The real ‘fuse’ of the Muslim insurgency

    36

    I applaud the National Historical Commission for resisting President Benigno Aquino 3rd’s pressure to declare the Jabidah hoax as real.

    However, the NHC’s claim, enshrined in the marker it approved for a “Mindanao Garden of Peace” on Corregidor,  that the “reports of killings of Muslim youth served as a fuse that led to the national crisis in the 1970s decade” is patently wrong. In the first place, if these “reports,” as the NHC itself claims, could not be verified, why dignify these, when they could be proven false indisputably with just some investigation?

    More importantly, though, the NHC’s claim that it was “a fuse for the Mindanao dispute” is hogwash.

    The Jabidah controversy that erupted in early 1968 had burnt out and vanished from the front pages by the end of the year. Why?

    The Liberal Party didn’t want to be pilloried as traitors who ratted on government’s clandestine plan for Muslim commandos to infiltrate Sabah and rouse an uprising against the Federation of Malaysia. The Marcos government, together with his Nationalista Party on the other hand, obviously wanted all talk about the secret plan buried, since it was supposed to be secret.

    There was one group, though, that tried to keep the controversy alive: the then fledgling Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF). Indeed, it organized vigils for many nights in front of the Senate, even claiming that the massacre victims weren’t just 24 as the sole eyewitness Jibin Arula claimed but 200, a figure accepted by gullible writers and our peace negotiators.

    In 1972, Marcos demanded that all Muslims give up their arms.  Above is the result of that colossal error.

    In 1972, Marcos demanded that all Muslims give up their arms.  Above is the result of that colossal error.

    Why? First, because it roused the Muslim youth to outrage, to believe that such peaceful movements as the Mindanao Independence Movement organized by Muslim politicians were hopeless, as it was the Philippine state that was killing Muslims.

    Most crusades and mass movements, in fact, try their best to glorify the martyrdom of their first adherents as a source of inspiration and militancy.

    Jabidah secured Malaysian help

    There was a more mundane reason, though, for the MNLF’s propagation of the Jabidah hoax. It reminded the Malaysians, in particular Sabah Minister Tun Mustapha, that the Marcos government was intent on getting Sabah that it was already training commandos in what was codenamed Operation Merdeka (Freedom) to infiltrate the peninsula.

    Mustapha, in a way, simply aped Operation Merdeka: His Sabah state provided military training to the recruits of the MNLF, given by retired British Special Action Forces officers. There were two groups, a so-called “Batch 90” and a “Batch 120”: they would form the officers’ corps of the MNLF and now its breakaway group, the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF). Mustapha would also provide arms and finances to the MNLF.

    As important as materiel, all successful revolutionary movements in history have required places of refuge—for example, the impregnable Yenan for Mao Tse Tung, the Cambodian and even Chinese territories for the Viet Cong. For the MNLF it was Sabah. Whenever our armed forces launched a campaign against the MNLF and the MILF, their leaders simply hid their arms and hid in Sabah until things cooled down.

    Jabidah wasn’t the fuse for the Mindanao conflict. It was the fuse only for massive Malaysian support of the Muslim insurgency.

    The MNLF, though, knew that “Jabidah” was a hoax. The MNLF frantically searched for even one relative of those purportedly massacred, as a crying mother or wife would have been a powerful propaganda image. The MNLF couldn’t. No MNLF nor MILF document refers to Jabidah now, since Malaysia had stopped its support of the insurgents in the 1990s. In order to squeeze sympathy from the gullible, though, while distancing itself from the hoax, the MNLF website merely posts the made-for-movie account of Jabidah written by two journalists.

    We must note that in the analogy we use, there is a fuse and there is the explosive mix the fuse detonates. For the Muslim problem, this mix was made up of the poverty generated by the coconut industry in their lands (as in other provinces as Samar and Leyte), and the corruption of Muslim politicians made worse by a feudal datu outlook that government posts were mini-kingdoms they could use for their clansmen.

    Most people, especially our negotiators, and the MNLF and the MILF as well, seem to be afraid to discuss the scale and power of corrupt political dynasties in Muslim Mindanao, which  are worse than in Luzon and the Visayas.  National-level political leaders of course are averse to discussing corruption in Muslim Mindanao, since it is these corrupt Muslim politicians, like datus  — feudal lords that is — of old who can deliver at will command votes, for the right price that is, that could be crucial in tight political contests.

    Just two dozen Muslim clans, in fact, account for all the local government posts up to the barangay level in Mindanao, the largest of which are the Ampatuans, Miditimbangs, Sangki, Sinsuat and Mangudadatu clans.

    You’d be surprised at the wealth of Muslim politicians. The Ombudsman claimed that Andal Ampatuan, Sr., accused of the Maguindanao massacre, had “unexplained wealth of P183 million and that he and his family had 161 properties totalling 5 million square meters in size. The Ampatuan’s arch-enemy, Maguindanao governor Esmael Mangudadatu, according to a report of the Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism (PCIJ), had a net worth of P391 million in 2011, based on his statement of assets and liabilities.

    This isn’t surprising given the billions of pesos allocated to the autonomous region for Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) every year. From 2011 to 2013, Maguindanao got P15 billion for its internal revenue allotment, bigger than similarly sized provinces like Ilocos Sur and Tarlac.

    In 2012, ARMM, in fact, got a humongous budget of P20 billion, P9 billion more than what the budget law gave it because Aquino allocated that much money through the Disbursement Acceleration Plan (DAP). Its governor, Hajiv Hataman, has the power to disburse these funds, and was even scolded by Aquino in 2013 for not disbursing it quickly enough. I hope the PCIJ gets his latest SALN and makes it public.

    Things like these make up the explosive mix for Mindanao insurgencies, not religion nor culture, most certainly not “Christian oppression.”

    Martial law proximate cause of insurgency

    But what was the fuse of the Mindanao conflict?

    Marcos’ martial law, but you’ll be a bit surprised—or maybe not—why it was.

    It is, indeed, one of the tragedies of our nation. One factor that convinced Marcos to go ahead with his strongman rule was the fact that the Jabidah episode exposed an opposition so unpatriotic that it even exposed his plan to reclaim Sabah for the Philippines. In Marcos’ mind, whether self-serving or not, he had the right to wipe out such an unprincipled opposition, through martial law. Indeed, his declaration of martial law on Sept 22, 1972 was justified as a move not only to protect the Republic from the communists and the rightist opposition but to stop the “secessionist movement in Mindanao.”

    The Muslim insurgency in 1972, however, was really so puny. As University of California scholar Thomas McKenna* explained why it grew:

    “The imposition of martial law was, in fact, the proximate cause, not the consequence, of an armed Muslim insurgency against the Philippine state, and it led to an unprecedented level of violence and disruption in Cotabato and all of Muslim Mindanao. By 1977, the government estimated that there were as many as million displaced civilians in the South and at least two hundred thousand additional refugees who had fled to Sabah.”

    But the one major reason for Muslim outrage against Marcos didn’t have anything to do with a Bangsamoro nonsense, nor outrage over a fake “Jabidah hoax:

    “The martial law regime immediately moved to collect all unauthorized guns in the Philippines by ordering the surrender of civilian firearms. Three weeks after declaring martial law, President Marcos announced that he was prepared to commit an entire division of troops to the South to “annihilate” outlaws if all guns were not turned in by the 25th of October.”

    “A few days before the deadline, Marawi City, in the province of Lanao, was attacked by more than four hundred armed Maranaos. They held strategic positions in the city for three days until overpowered by superior army forces. One week later, fighting began between Muslim rebels and government soldiers in Cotabato, and in mid-November Marcos sent thousands of troops to Mindanao. By late November, fierce clashes between government units and separatist rebels were occurring throughout the South.”

    In short, Marcos made the colossal error of demanding the Muslims to give up their arms, and even gave them a deadline to do so—forgetting that old adage since the Spanish period that a Muslim would give up his wife first rather than his kris, in modern times, his Armalite.

    The rest is history. As radical students rallied to the Communist Party and the New People’s Army to protest a dictatorship, Muslim youths rushed to join the MNLF, and the myth of Muslims fighting for their homeland Bangsamoro was invented, and  propagated.

    The big difference between the two insurgencies, though, and why one has become a clear and present danger to the Republic, is the waning and rise of their different sources of international support  and their ideologies.  China stopped  its support of the communists by the 1980s, and Marxist radicalism among the Filipino youth has waned, if not vanished.

    What replaced Malaysian support for the MNLF and MILF is now much bigger and much more dangerous: the global Islamic jihadist movements financed, ironically by rich Muslims, like Osama bin Laden, from such affluent countries as Saudi Arabia. The MILF in particular has embraced jihadism, and the notion that Islam requires establishment of Islamic caliphates.

    (*McKenna, Thomas M. Muslim Rulers and Rebels: Everyday Politics and Armed Separatism in the Southern Philippines. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998.)

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    36 Comments

    1. Ikabod Bubwit on

      To say with finality that the Jabidah Massacre was a myth is dangerous. I myself went to Correigidor in 1997. I went to the ruins of the old hospital there and walked around its corridors. I saw in one of the walls a graffiti of three names of Muslim men with the year 1968 at the bottom. It is highly likely that these three were part of the Jabidah operation and were later killed. What I am trying to say is that we cannot conclude with finality that the alleged massacre never happened. They were Tausugs but many of them could have come from Sabah itself and not Mindanao.

    2. I think one factor that ignite the war in Mindanao specially in cotabato and adjoining provinces is the forced migration of Christian in that place. I was starting my secondary at that time when the brother and relatives of my parents was relocated in sultan kudarat under the former president Marcos “Christian invasion” They were given plots of land and houses that include jobs. farmers was given bast of land to till. The rest is history.

    3. Venerando Desales on

      Strong points, Mr. Tiglao! A Truth Commission on the Jabidah issues must be established to lay to rest all speculations. Marcos was on the right track in reclaiming Sabah because he knew at that time it was being used as training ground by the MNLF with the support of Malaysia and Libya. Yet, accordingly, the road to hell is paved with good intentions! Damage should be our guide in making judgment no matter how noble the intentions are. Yes, state secrets should remain secret! Ninoy Aquino was at that time so engulfed in his ambition to become President that he had to muster the support of all stakeholders like the MNLF and the Communists. Politicians keep on making promises, they will never say no, otherwise, they lose voters. However, in one of his speeches in the U.S.A. , he said he had lost his appetite for power that, in lieu, he committed himself in the dismantlement of Marcos’ martial law machinery. That was the transformation, according to some commentators.

    4. the JIHADIST IN KENYA had attack a university killing mostly CHRISTIAN STUDENTS ,THE MUSLIM STUDENTS WERE FREED EARLIER, PLEASE do not allow this to happen in the PHILIPPINES ,CALLING THE so called peace advocates , what shall we do?

    5. My father was not schooled, but whoever will listen, he will always say that Ninoy Aquino is not a hero but a traitor. That he exposed the SABAH operation during Marcos time. What you have written and what I been reading lately proved him right. It is about time that Philippine history be told as it is. Once and for all, people who knows what are the true stories at that period should be honest to re tell the story of what actually happen before and during Marcos years. The good and the bad. It’s about time for our history to be written right. It’s one way we could move forward as a country.

      • A lot of pinoys know the truth. But few of us speak up about this. You are right GND, history about Marcos-the good and the bad, should be rewritten. Most pinoys who are now in their 20s know Marcos as one ugly, dirty, bad “dictator”. We should be fair to them, our future generation.Ninoy Aquino did not do anything about the country to deserve a national hero stature. The truth will set us free.

    6. Moro is from the word Moors. They are literally Muslim pirates of the sea, who raided ships and boats and robbed it as their source of livelihood. They raided towns and barangays to pillage it and abducted young women either to be their wives or as slaves. That;s the original Moro. The Badjaos are peace loving people, who migrated to Luzon and Visayas to evade the war in Mindanao. That’s how peace loving they are
      The Tausugs are the real warriors. They were hired as mercenaries in Afghanistan when it was invaded by the Russians. The Sultan of Sulu and North Borneo(Sabah) at least has taken back from the PH government the right to claim Sabah. This Pnoy is a traitors as his father. His mother has erase from the constitution our right to claim Sabah. This bunch of family of traitors are malaysian citizens by heart. Even Ninoy is an NPA supporters who has escape the bombing of Plaza Miranda. get even with Malaysia. Someday when we became military strong again we have to invade Sabah to regain it.

    7. During the time of Marcos a lot of Muslims in Mindanao were given Scholarships as to what college education they want. Most of them took up Nursing, Med Tech, Criminology, Commerce, Engineering, Political Science then LAW. They also received monthly allowances, paid board and lodging, book allowances, Travel allowances etc. On the other side, the Christians didn’t have this opportunity that Marcos gave to the Muslims. The Christian Parents work hard to support their children in school. The Muslims enjoy Free Education. This so called Muslim Scholars as they call themselves aren’t grateful to Marcos and the Republic of the Philippines. Still they fight the Phil govt and would like to take the whole Mindanao as their owned. They must be thankful that Marcos gave them Free Education etc.

    8. I still believed that the JABIDDAH MYTH was the cause of militant muslim rebellion… The guns could be easily hidden…

      The waning of the secessionist movements in the early 80s was the capture of the LEADERS OF THE MILITANT ORGANIZATIONS AND THE MILITARY TACTICS employed by the GREATEST LEADER and HERO PRES. MARCOS…. coupled with the successful DIPLOMACY OF PRES. MARCOS AND FIRST LADY IMELDA R. MARCOS IN LIBYA [COL. MUAMMAR KHADAFY] AND RED CHINA [CHAIRMAN MAO TSE TUNG]…

      BUT ALL THESE WENT TO NAUGHT WITH POST E.D.S.A. 1 ADMINISTRATION WHEREBY, THE LEADERS OF THE MILITANT ORGS. WERE LET LOOSE…. AND THE REST IS HISTORY….

    9. We, Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF), celebrate our anniversary in the same date as Jabidah Massacre of March 18. However, recently in November 2014, I adjudicated our investigation on the Operation Merdeka and Jabidah Massacre with a decision that it was a hoax. Nur Misuari will explain it in due time. (John R. Petalcorin, MNLF Director for Communications)

    10. Read the QURAN and learn that there is “no peace” until the world is worshipping Allah alone, and the Sharia laws are fully implemented on ALL of us…further, jihadists are decreed to invite everyone to Islam conversion, demand to pay dhimmi jizya tax, or else, get beheaded…

      Islam teaches the Quran is the ACTUAL words of Allah as dictated to the Muslim prophet Muhammad, so it can never be interpreted, changed, ammended and IS APPLICABLE everywhere, and at all times….

      So, the Muslims are stuck in the 7th century, and want to drag us all backwards..that’s why they are so left behind, not oppressed…no education, no arts, no science, no excellence, nothing but memorizing the Quran, and fighting for Allah…

      Hello…it is now the 21st century! Islam is the world’s greatest threat. With Iran being allowed access now to nuclear capability, the world is in grave danger to a nuclear holocaust, because all Muslims want to annihilate Israel, and that will be the trigger…

      We should offer security and protection for would-be Muslim apostates/deserters, so that they are emboldened to leave such a “religion”….heck, half of it will be gone in a year (the WOMEN) right off the bath…!

      No to the Bangsamoro!

      Further, Cardinal Tagle and the Catholic church MUST NOT BE USED to have the BBL approved, as Pnoy wants…

      To all lawmakers, please accept Pnoy;s bribes, but maintain your love of country and do not become TRAITORS…

    11. Eliminate BIFF because they are traitors not because they are Muslims. Law abiding Muslims and non- Muslims must be proected from these traitors, like PNoy and cohorts,

    12. Although I no longer live in the country (still have a lot of properties there) by heart I am still a pure Filipino. Many government officials as well as the private sector must be familiar with the democratic process “Referendum/plebiscite”. The so called BBL affects every Filipinos (in or off country). Here’s my two cents. Why not let all eligible Filipinos through referendum/plebiscite decide its outcome. It is not only unfair but also unjust if the decision is only left with congress. Remember both houses are employees of all Filipinos. Well, I am just saying!!!

      • Hello Purong GI. You are right-the people should be heard.But that is not going to happen here in pinas.The senate and congress, except the supreme court,are under pnoy’s beck and call. PDAF worked for pnoy ‘s inefficiency. What we need now are active pinoys. Most of us have been reduced to being passive to what has been happening here. We need help to get us back to our self esteem. We need new leaders to get us back on track. We need leaders to think for the good of the country.We don’t need trapos who worked for selfish intents. We need someone who is dedicated to run this country. We need someone who has the attributes, a little of these from our past presidents: Marcos(for his intelligence), FVR(for his military background and control), GMA( an economist), and Erap(for being maka masa). Many issues affect the country now-like the China threat, BBL, DAP and PDAF, etc.We are practically down but not out. We need to get out of this predicament for our future generation. We simply need help.

    13. upang walang politiko na maghari-harian sa isang probinsya at gumamit ng private army, dapat ibalik ng military ang CAFGU (Citizens Armed Forces Geographical Unit) pangontra sa NPA, MNLF, MILF, BIFF at other terrorist groups.

    14. So this is a public admission that once upon a time, Joma was a stooge and protege of Beijing before the visit of Mr. Marcos to tsaynah in 1976? That Chito and Eric were able to stay in beyging as they were the conduit of funding for the CPP? For if so, valid as the issues that the national democratic movement may have raised during those years, it becomes apparent that the student movement may have been a political gambit of the Liberal Party to wrest political power. Note that the NPA was resurrected at Hacienda Lusita by the triumvirate of benigno, joma and dante Then, martial law was a political imperative of the right in the war against the left and those guys propagated as “detainees” are prisoners of war and collateral damage in the class war between the Right and the Left.

    15. Mr. Tiglao, I wish you also write how strong the influence of media, then and now. When I was in grade school, I always saw rallies and rehetorics against Marcos that also influenced me to be anti-Marcos while growing up. Now, Im old and became cautious what these idiot boxes and some newspapers are doing as influencr peddlers and mind-conditioners.

    16. sonny dela cruz on

      The main problem in Mindanao is not the rebels, whether the MILF, MNLF, BIFF and etc. Everybody has to understand that Malaysia is the one making all this chaos that we are experiencing now. Malaysia is interested in Mindanao to be part of them. This rebels making all the fighting against the Republic of the Philippines are the front for Malaysia. Whenever they are cornered, the leaders of these rebels, they ran and hide in Malaysia. What does it means, don’t need any explanations. These BBL was done in Malaysia. The MILF report in Mamasapano was given first to Malaysia for approval before they release it to the Philippine government. Now the defense man of Malaysia said that if BBL is not approve by the congress, we will start counting body bag. Another problem is B.S. Aquino, he is pro-Malaysia. He is not protecting the interest of the country. I believe he is mentally sick not that he doesn’t know how to run the government. He should have compassion to the 44SAF policemen massacred by the MILF. He doesn’t have the compassion to the Yolanda victims and now giving away territories to the MILF and Sabah to Malaysia. No normal person will act like what he is doing. The longer he stay as president, I belive the Philippine will be a place no where to go and the Filipino people will suffer more and by the time they wait for help, it will be too late. Pls. Filipino people wake up, try to understand what is happening now, befpre the ship sink.

      • Hello Sonny. If what you said here about the Malaysian involvement in the
        BBL is true, I will be with you. However, please provide some evidence
        on these as I believe that the truth will set us free. I respect your opinion. Everyone is entitled to it – subjective or objective it may be.

    17. The Muslim insurgency cannot be well understood without mentioning Sabah and yet its supposed solution, the BBL, as espoused by PNoy and the MILF failed to include the Sabah issue. The MILF even seems to distort history by claiming the legacies and culture of the Sultanate of Sulu, Sultanate of Maguindanao and the Lumads. They repackaged this collectively and called it the history and culture of the Bangsamoro. With the help of their patron, Malaysia, MILF cried that the wrongs perpetrated against the Bangsamoro can only be righted by granting them with a substate which after all is their entitlement since they were already a sovereign nation even before the Christian colonizers arrived in Philippines. They further argued that Mindanao was never subdued by Spain and USA and was forcefully annexed to the Republic of the Philippines. What’s very wrong here was the fact that the word Bangsamoro never existed before and was only coined by MILF in their campaign for a separate homeland. The unconstitutionally declared MOA-AD was based on this premise and the BBL is no different. It’s because the history of the Bangsamoro is a fallacy. There was no Bangsamoro before only the Sultanate of Sulu, Sultanate of Maguindanao and the various Lumad tribes. It was the Sultanate of Sulu which was not conquered by the colonial powers. It was the Sultanate of Sulu which came to the rescue of the Sultanate of Brunei and was granted Sabah in return. This was the historical truth that Malaysia is trying to erase in connivance with MILF and Pnoy through the BBL.

    18. I was on my grade school when Sabah issue erupted. There was feeling of nationalism. Jeepneys carried signboard that read SABAH.. Macapagal and Marcos protested on the illegal inclusion of Sabah to Malaysia Federation.. Ninoy seemed a traitor. Now the son seemed to appear as one. I admire Pnoy for his fight against corruption. The BBL might tarnished the image. Still nobody can replace him at this time. Postpone the BBL until advocates died of old age and restart talks with credible and transparent people. If we really want peace postponent is not an issue.

      • You mean to tell us that out of 100 million Filipnos, simyon is the only one who has the right and privilege to become stupid and 99,999,999 Filipinos are never intelligent enough to replace him? That not even any of the summa cum laude graduates of UP Diliman can not match the intelligence of simyon so he is irreplaceable? Maybe, what you should campaign nationwide is for people to realize that the Liberal Party is a political party of traitors to the cause of our Motherland people as it is by the likes of a congenital liar (eg. benigno); a monumental plunderer to the tune of PP160 Billion (eg. florencio) and a stupid usurper of public office (eg. simyon).

    19. These rebel movement, be the NPA, MNLF, MILF, BIFF, ASG, JIM and so on, do not entirely represent the people that they are speaking of, and much like calling a sectarian group of people by their religious belief, a scourge on earth, because Christians (Catholics) like Muslims (Moors) have waged war against fellow believers, all for the aim of ruling over a population, who only cares for one thing – to live a peaceful life and be left alone from any conflict of interest.

      Those that chose to take up arms, be it Filipinos (NPA) or Moros (MNLF, MILF, BIFF and such), are the cause of miseries and despair of our nation, each of these entities would like to carve out a portion of our nation to rule.

      China, being a communist country had turned towards commercialism to compete with the west, which proves that the old model laid out by Marx and embraced by Mao, will not survive in the new millennium. While, in the Middle East, there came about the Arab Spring, and their armed rebellion where world powers are looking to cash in on the changing of its map.

      Pawns – unarmed members of the society are being made to be, all for their (world powers) own interest. This is not really a fight of ideologies, rather this is a foreign occupation without having to invade a sovereign country, being masked as an internal conflict.

    20. The best solution to mindanao problem is give them what they want which is independence from the Philippines but no funding period. Let them tend for themselves.

      • Loreto gopez on

        we have been talking about progress and war in mindanao for decade. if ur going around mindanao u will see a lot progress in non muslin region in mindanao, the question how about in the muslim region? not much why? I think the answer lies on corruption in thier elected officials.

    21. Crisostomo Ibarra on

      Most people, especially our negotiators, and the MNLF and the MILF as well, seem to be afraid to discuss the scale and power of corrupt political dynasties in Muslim Mindanao, which are worse than in Luzon and the Visayas. National-level political leaders of course are averse to discussing corruption in Muslim Mindanao, since it is these corrupt Muslim politicians, like datus — feudal lords that is — of old who can deliver at will command votes, for the right price that is, that could be crucial in tight political contests.
      Just two dozen Muslim clans, in fact, account for all the local government posts up to the barangay level in Mindanao, the largest of which are the Ampatuans, Miditimbangs, Sangki, Sinsuat and Mangudadatu clans.

      You’d be surprised at the wealth of Muslim politicians. The Ombudsman claimed that Andal Ampatuan, Sr., accused of the Maguindanao massacre, had “unexplained wealth of P183 million and that he and his family had 161 properties totalling 5 million square meters in size. The Ampatuan’s arch-enemy, Maguindanao governor Esmael Mangudadatu, according to a report of the Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism (PCIJ), had a net worth of P391 million in 2011, based on his statement of assets and liabilities.
      This isn’t surprising given the billions of pesos allocated to the autonomous region for Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) every year. From 2011 to 2013, Maguindanao got P15 billion for its internal revenue allotment, bigger than similarly sized provinces like Ilocos Sur and Tarlac.

      Wow!!! Unbelievable!!! To our Muslim brothers, you know who to blame.

    22. To the Author,
      Well presented account of history and a true picture of where the financial backing for the insurgents is coming from. Malaysia is a constructed country made possible by British colonial intervention, as is Singapore and Indonesia and as a result of corporate policy of colonial companies such as the British East India Company. This company actually owned India, it’s resources and it’s peoples, It had it’s own armed forces and navy that metered out a brutal form of justice that was vested on anyone who resisted the rules of the company. The British monarchy became so embarrassed by the excesses of East India Company that Queen Victoria assumed control from the company, India became the ” Jewel in the Crown” by default. Similarly Sabah given to Malaysia by the same company. These crimes of colonisation have never been addressed or corrected, instead, fruits of the corrupt capitalist companies have been adopted by the people who gained control and who should have been looking after the interests of the downtrodden people. The woes of all countries blighted by the oppression of so called superpowers is now coming to the fore and the moguls who use financial control and wield such power by way of corrupt politicians are desperately trying to hold onto past greed and glory. Race or religion are only tools in this quest to accumulate more wealth, 1 % of the world population controls 80 % of the worlds wealth.

      • Rosauro Feliciano on

        It is time to search for solution and we have to stop talking about why North Borneo’s name is changed to such animal as Sabah.

    23. Hector David on

      Muslims cannot even live in peace among themselves.. Shite, Sunni,ISIS, the afghan geruillas,PLO … and on and on and on . What peace are we talking about

      • fully agree, they cannot live without wars. even against themselves. all hotspots in the world except ukraine have muslims as actors. they said majority of muslims are peaceful but they made themselves irrelevant.

    24. There will be no peace in Mindanao. We should kill them all. You think after the peace with MILF, there will be peace in Mindanao.

      Before, it is MNLF, now it is MILF, next, it will be BIFF. If we kill them now,, no more Muslim insurgency.

      Remember, with this kind of people, you don’t give them haven, you give them he’ll.

      • With no means you gave conviction and judge them by your words, with that barbaric thoughts of you, you are even worse than what you think those people are. If for you those poeple must give a hellish life, then think about your family. You will never ever want to see your wife and children melting and aching but still living and never die right there in the sea of burning sulfur.

      • Mr. Wilfredo Magtibay your way of thinking is one of the stigmata in our country. You post before you think. A typical Filipino mongrel who loves to act tough and mighty behind the monitor. Please refrain your self from listening to Satan’s Whisper and keep it for yourself.