• There is no ‘Bangsamoro,’ never was


    The most basic flaw of the Bangsamoro Basic Law is in its title itself, enough reason to reject it: the term Bangsamoro.

    There is no such thing as a “Bangsamoro,” never was in history, none now in this archipelago. But there will be one, at least temporarily as a transition state, if we continue to have a President and negotiators with the Islamic insurgents as uninformed, stupid and gullible as we have now.

    Aquino’s “Comprehensive Agreement on Bangsamoro” is the first and so far the only government pact that contains the term “Bangsamoro” and recognizes it as an entity.

    The term was not used even in the 1976 Tripoli Agreement, which the then powerful Libyan strongman, Muammar Gaddafi, arm-twisted the Marcos government to sign, calling the entity to be set up only as “Autonomy in Southern Philippines.” Nowhere in the 1996 final peace pact with the MNLF did the term appear, and the agreement appropriately called that special area the “Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao.”

    This nation has gone mad. The Constitution’s Article X Section 1 very clearly specifies that “the territorial and political subdivisions of the Republic of the Philippines are the provinces, cities, municipalities and barangays… and autonomous regions in Muslim Mindanao and the Cordilleras.” How can the President, Congress, even some of those who drafted the Constitution, even think of creating a Bangsamoro “political entity”?

    The use of the term in the “Comprehensive Agreement on Bangsamoro” and in the BBL already means a great victory for the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF).

    We, who are now concerned about peace and the future of the country, who discuss how the insurgency can be resolved, because of this inane government, have been hoodwinked into using the language of the Islamic rebels, and, therefore, their narrative. And because we now use the term casually, becoming nearly a household term, we have been giving more and more flesh to a myth.

    Where again did you get that term? (Alhamdulillah means “Praise be to Allah!”)

    Where again did you get that term? (Alhamdulillah means “Praise be to Allah!”)

    Neither “bangsa” nor “moro” is a word in any of the languages of the 13 Muslim and 18 non-Muslim cultural minorities that the BBL law will classify as “Bangsamoro People. ”

    “Moro” is a term the Spanish colonizers used to call the Muslims they found in Mindanao, believing they were descendants of the Muslim Moors of North Africa who humiliated them by their conquest of the Iberian Peninsula in the 8th century. “Moro” was a pejorative Spanish term, even a racist one used in Europe referring to anyone of dark color, of the same genre as the American “nigger.”

    It was similarly a defamatory term in modern Philippines, which not even the Muslims in Mindanao use to call themselves. Ask them “what” they are, and they’d identify themselves as Maguindanaon, Tausug, Maranao, or any of the 13 Muslim ethnic groups of the Islamic faith. Before the Spanish came, several of these groups even regularly fought each other, raiding the other’s villages to get slaves.

    It was the American colonizers who put the pejorative term in official lexicon when a few years after conquering the country, Legislative Act No. 787 in 1903 created the “Moro Province,” consisting of the five districts of Sulu, Zamboanga, Lanao, Cotabato, and Davao. The residents of the “Province,” of course, detested the name so that the Americans renamed it in 1914 simply as the “Department of Mindanao and Sulu.”

    There is one report that in 1921, Jamalul Kiram, who laid claim to the Sultanate of Sulu, sent a petition signed by 57 Sulu officials to the US Congress that “in the event the US grants independence to the Philippines islands, it is our firm intention and resolve to declare ourselves an independent constitutional sultanate to be known as Moro Nation.”

    Other than that, though, no Muslim leader, writer, nor academic from Mindanao would use the term “Moro” to call the Islamic residents of that region – until the late 1960s, as an invention in order to propagate a political agenda.

    There is an obverse side, though, to the deprecatory meaning of “Moro,” which Americans, as they did with the Sioux or Cheyenne or Apache peoples they subdued, disseminated in media, and which, decades later, would prod Moro National Liberation Front founders to adopt the term. “Moros” became known as fearless warriors.

    Harpers’ Weekly in 1906, for instance, quoted a colonel who fought in Mindanao: “The Moro is brave to fearlessness, a born pirate, and essentially a first-class fighting man.”

    And “bangsa”? In the same way that Moro is not, bangsa isn’t a word in any of the odd two-dozen languages of minorities in Mindanao. Why didn’t they use “bansa,” which is a word in Pilipino that means “nation”?

    The answer reveals why or how the MNLF and the MILF got to be threats to the Philippine Republic. The MNLF – and the MILF, which broke away from it in 1976 – would not have grown, and would have deteriorated into small bandit groups, as has been the history of Muslim rebellions – if not for Malaysia.

    The facts are still not clear as to who made the first offensive move, after the Philippines broke diplomatic relations with Malaysia following this Asian neighbor country’s act of formally including Sabah, which we claim is part of our archipelago, into its federation in 1963.

    What’s indisputable, though, is that the Malaysians in 1969 brought the first group of MNLF members – the so-called “Batch 90,” followed by a “Batch 120” – to a secret training camp in Sabah and given military training by retired British Special Air Service commandos. Malaysia’s plot was to create an insurgency in Mindanao serious enough, so that it could demand that the Philippines drop its Sabah claim in exchange for its termination of support for the rebels.

    It is an undisputable fact – even admitted by former Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad in a recent interview with Al-Jazeera TV – that Malaysia supported the MNLF and then the MILF with finances, arms, and refuge. Malaysia had become to the MNLF and the MILF what China (through North Korea) was to the Communist Party of the Philippines.

    The young MNLF trainees in Malaysia, or even MNLF founder Nur Misuari, who was in close touch with Malaysian Islamic ideologues, got absorbed in the political debates in Malaysia at that time. One of the most important of these was the concern of that country in building a unified nation. This had become a serious national concern since the Federation of Malaysia consisted of three major ethnic groups: the Chinese, native Malays and Indians.

    “Bangsa Malaysia”
    One school of thought propagated the concept of “Bangsa Melayu,” or Malay nation. The concept would only gain prominence in 1991 when Prime Minister Mahathir officially adopted it as “Bangsa Malaysia,” his nation-building project.

    The MNLF leadership had a similar problem, how to portray their organization – then mainly an organization of Misuari’s Tausugs and Hashim Salamat’s Maguindanaons – as one representing all of the minorities in Mindanao.

    The young MNLF cadres, like Misuari, were of a different generation, growing up when the “nations” of their fathers and grandfathers – the Sultanates of Sulu and Maguindanao – were fast becoming forgotten notions.

    Rather than the pejorative meaning of Moro, these young warriors were proud of the media descriptions of the brave Moro warrior by American writers.

    Eureka! They invented “Bangsamoro,” the Malaysian word for nation melded with the old Spanish term for Muslims, was invented by the MNLF and then adopted by the MILF. However, it was initially used only to describe its guerillas, i.e., the former’s Bangsamoro Army and the latter’s Bangsamoro Islamic Armed Forces.

    When Misuari first mentioned the term in the 1970s to us who were with the Communist Party, not a few comrades even made fun of what, at that time, was an obviously contrived term. After all, our chairman Amado Guerrero in his Philippine Society and Revolution, simply included “Muslim tribes” as among the “national minorities,” emphasizing that “it is more accurate to speak of them as Maguindanaos, Maranaos, Tausugs, etc.”

    One particular book would revise history and facts to build up that myth: “Bangsamoro, a Nation Under Endless Tyranny,” written by one Salah Jubair. Who is Jubair? – Mohagher Iqbal, head of the MILF’s negotiating panel and reputedly a member of the five-man Jihad Executive Committee.

    This inane government embraced the invented term Bangsamoro, mythicized by the Islamic insurgents as a once-upon-a-time nation when the Muslim peoples of Mindanao lived in peace under Islam, to be brutally conquered by the Spaniards, Americans and Filipinos. There was no such nation, and the biggest political entities Muslims in Mindanao lived under were the Sultanate of Sulu and the Sultanates of Maguindanao, institutions before the modern age, which no longer exist, nor will be permitted to exist.

    It is the height of stupidity and gullibility for this Republic to pass a law that would give reality to a mythic nation they call the Bangsamoro. What it really would set up would be merely a transitional government for an Islamic state, or a Caliphate.

    FB: Bobi Tiglao


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    1. francisco santos jr on

      I will keep it short!!! don’t go back to history its open unreasonable old wound/s. Let it go and move forward. I grew up in Mindanao, Muslims and Christians co-exist together until a few bright and deceptive muslim leaders with the help of Malaysia started this present dilemma because of SABAH. The sultanate do not want to give Sabah to Malaysia who are the rightful descendants and owner. The Malaysia on their part thru MNLF and now MILF is behind the scene to get not only ARMM territoy but eventually would try to harass to get the Christians Lands. NO to BBL. its a deception with Malaysia behind the scene to continue to create havoc in Mindanao, until no more claim of Sabah by the descendants of the Sultanate. The root of the problem must be solved – Sabah. How much is Malaysia willing to give to help their brother Muslims, especially the heirs of the Sultanate of Sulu and also development Sulu and Mindanao?? their money in exchange for Sabah?? not our taxpayers hard earned money!!!

    2. Maguindanao Sultan on

      There is no ‘FILIPINO,’ never was

      >BANGSA is not only a MALAY word that define as a NATION the IRANUN too….. example BANGSA IRANUN meaning IRANUN NATION

      Iranun was one of the oldest existing nations in the world during the ancient times with definite integral territory wherein the sovereign power and authority was exercised over it by the ligimate ruler. Iranun as a nation inhabited mainly the Crab Gulf (Moro Gulf). Its villages were established and concentrated in the Iranun Bay (Illana Bay). The origin was attributed to the people of the Uranen Kingdom of the primitive past inhabited in the Tbok (Malabang). Iranun was the first people who entered into a marriage affinity with Shariff Aulia and Shariff Kabunsuan. Bai sa Pandan (Princess Pagunguwan, daughter of Rajah Urangguwan) and Bai Angintabu respectively. Their wedlocks where Sultan Kudarat has directly got his line of descent. Iranun was a breed nation between the Karibang-Karingke Line of descent and last wave of Malay migrants. From this marriage affinity sprang the Iranun nation whose first leader was Rajah Urangguwan. The name of their place (state) was Uranen. During the advent of the Shariffs, union took its place in the kingdom through uninterrupted inter-marriages among the royals.
      The ancient Muslim civilization started from the coast of the Uranen. Genealogists say that later in the succeding decades it was spread and extended to the Ranaw areas as far as Upper Pulangi areas. The Biwang-Kawanan Tinday A Datal O Pagilidan (Two Huge Coastal Principalities) was established as a political group headed by Rajah Makaapen after the death of Rajah Urangguwan, simoultaneously with Slangan and Buayan principalities. Later on sultanate system of government was established patterned from the system of government introduced by the Shariffs.The political system of the Iranun during Rajah Urangguwan was patterned from Sri Vishaya and Majapahit Empires.

      The society of the Iranun was a muslim. Its social class was classified into: Uripin (slave), Kadaklan (Dumato) and Pendatu (Ruling class). Iranun is a very hospitable and principled group of people. It is good and friendly contrary to the description of the western writers as they described Iranun as pirates. This description is not true. As a matter of fact, Iranun is the champion of hospitability and good will. The Sultan of Brunei was being reinforced by Sultan Kudarat. The fleet was composed of Iranun warriors. The Sultan of Brunei was able to defend his sovereign state against invaders through the assistance of the Iranuns led by Sultan Kudarat. Tradition says that it inhabited the coastal areas of the Iranun Bay. It was said that Tbok, a place near the present site of Malabang was the center and seat of government of the ancient Iranun. It was headed by Rajah Urangguwan, the ruler of the Uranen Kingdom. The modern authorities in history have cited the fact that the ancient territory of the Uranen was the areas where Sultan Kudarat exerciced his sovereign authority and influence. It stressed from Punta de Flechas of Sibugay down to Tagalook (Davaw Gulf). These areas were recognized by the Spaniards.

      In the later decades, the Iranun as a group of people was covered. Most of the writers and historians did not mention Iranun in their writings. It is interesting to mention and include here that Iranun was the original tribe where other tribes sprang out, the mother of other native tribes in the Island. Let me discuss in the following paragraph.

      Modern historians made mention of Shariff Aulia. It is right that there was a Shariff Aulia who sometimes arrived in the Island. Shariff Aulia landed at the coast of Tbok and welcomed by Rajah Urangguwan, the ruler of the ancient Uranen Kingdom, a Kingdom situated and located at the Iranun Bay, Layagan Gulf (Moro Gulf). Shariff Aulia married Princess Pagunguwan, a beloved and adored princess of her time, and a daughter of Rajah Urangguwan. They begot the four rajas: Rajah Makaapen, Rajah Dungklang, Rajah Maraguia, and Rajah Budtol. These four rajas explored and adventured the Island (Mindanaw). The first two (Makaapen and Dungklang) remained in the capital of the Kingdom. The other two ( Maraguia and Budtol) went south. Maraguia established his own community at the present Tantawan (PC Hill) in the present site of Cotabato City. Budtol went east through Pulangi River. He established his community in the present Buayan.

      It is interesting to include here and mention that Tantawan was once an island like Bunged (Bungo) and Timako. The Iranun tarsila has described that Tantawan was a military base during the ancient Uranen Kingdom. The huge biruar ( tower) was established in Tantawan to oversee the enemy which may come from south, north east, and west portion of the Kingdom. It was a military naval base of the ancient Uranen Kingdom. Later as decades passed by and it becomes a century, it becomes as its present geographical view. According to the oral tradition, liitle by little a landmarsh was developed. Modern science explains the episode as a result of residual remains process.

      In one of the lyrics of the darangan, it was mentioned that there were three islands which served as a guard islands of the Turugan (Palace) of the Ayunan Pangadapan O Inayunan O Kampong Sa Iliyan A Bembaran. Most of the Iranun experts and commentors in ancient/prehistorical facts are unanimous in findings that the three (3) islands mention in one of the darangan lyrics were the same and identical with Tantawan, Bunged (Bongo) and Timako. Therefore, these three islands are historic and considered as tourist spots of the Island.

      The relation between Bembaran and Uranen Kingdom was quite interesting to mention and discuss here. Some of the Iranun genealogists say that Bembaran and Uranen Kingdom were identical. Some says that Bembaran and its people was a legendary and it was one of the most narrated legends during the Uranen Kingdom. Some says that Bembaran which was the setting of the Darangen constituted the heights of the Uranen Kingdom. Out of these views, it is safe to say that Bembaran is the place where the setting of the Darangan period occured during the Uranen Kingdom, and was one of the civilizations of the Kingdom.

      Going back to the issue on decendancy, Makaapen and Dungklang were the forefathers of the Iranun of the coastal areas of the Iranun Bay. Maraguia was the forefather of the Iranun in the City of Cotabato and near adjacent places. Budtol was the forefather of the Iranun of the Upper Stream. This stage of civilization was reinforced again when Shariff Kabunsuan arrived. Shariff Kabunsuan married Princess Angintabu, a daughter of Makaapen, begot Makaalang. Makaalang married his first cousin, a daughter of Rajah Dungklang named Princess Pidsarawdan begot Rajah Bangkaya. Rajah Bangkaya married a lady from Lupah Suog name Pangyan Mampay begot Kapitan Laut Buisan, the father of the strongest among the sultans of Mindanaw named Sultan Dipatuan Kudarat. Intermarriages among the offspring of the four rajas in the later decades were observed. Their intermarriage established a royal line of descent. This was the stage of civilization of the Iranun when whitemen came ( Spaniards in 1521).

      Iranun was a great warrior. Iranun were good navigator and sailor. Their skills and knowledge in navigation and of being a sailor is comparable to the skills of the whitemen ( Spaniards, Portugese and other westerners). During the counter offensive of Sultan Kudarat against the Spain Royal Armed Forces, mostly of the captains of the different vessels of Sultan Kudarat were Iranuns. Iranuns are champion of freedom. The Iranun defended the sovereign territory and authority of the present Moro Nation from aggression and invasion of the Spaniards. Iranun are jealous people as far as sovereign is concern.

      It is a fact that Iranun was the people whom the the Spaniards met during their invasion. The Spaniards described them as moro (moores in western version) because they portrayed the same quality in terms of field combat and fighting of the Moores people whom they fought in Northern Africa. This was the origin and beginning of using the term moro which referred to and described the Iranun people whom the Spaniards met in this Island particulrly Mactan, the recorded first bloodiest battle between the Spaniards and the native inhabitants. Thus the Moro is a colonial term introduced by the Spaniards replacing Iranun ( the original inhabitants).

      It was presented in the preceeding paragraphs that Iranun was the people whom the Spaniards met during invasion. The Spaniards introduced some strategies and techniques in order to reinforce and establish their colonial mission. It was their first priority to dismantle the original tribe for them to implement their mission effectively. The strategy was little by little leading to creation of other tribe within the Island. There are identified colonial terms which make Iranun tribe put into ash and ruined by colonialism.

      With due respect to other scholars, Iranun had been subdivided into different tribes. These tribes are: Maguindanawon, Mranaw, and Mragat (Islamized); Tiduray, Subanen, Kalagan, Manobo, Blaan, Bagobo, and other highlanders (Unislamized). The first three (3) sub Iranun tribes accepted the Ideology introduced by Shariff Aulia and Shariff Kabunsuan. Tiduray, and others did not accept the Ideology introduced by the two Shariffs. This is the reason of Moro (Iranun) has two groups of people in relation to belief: Islamized and Unislamized.

      Later on in the succeeding decades, Spaniards more and more intensify their colonial mission. On the other hand, the Dutch had the same mission with that of the Spaniards. The Dutch was expanding its sovereign in the Island. A rivalry between the two world super powers began in the Island. The rivalry between the Spaniards and the Dutch colonialists were contribute much in the ruinity of the Iranun as a people/nation. Factions were observed. Colonial concepts came in. With due respect to other scholars in history, the term Maguindanao although a native term connoting specific place is a colonialism sponsored term to destroy the original which is Slangan, which is the correct. Slangan was a confederated state of Tbok and Buayan after the death of Rajah Uranguwan. Slangan was led by Rajah Maraguia.

      Iranun tribe expanded in land of the Island until villages were established in the Unayan area (Ranaw). Iranun oral tradtion say that the first Iranun datu who explored the Ranaw area was Penduma. He was a descendant of Rajah Dungklang. He explored going in- land part of the Uranen Kingdom until finally he discovered Butig. Butig is the seat of the Unayan. The established village in Butig (Unayan) flourished and developed into a center of trade, commerce and education of the time. Later on it expanded into other places around the Ranaw( Masio, Bayabaw, Baloi). Thus the creation and estblishment of the Pat a Pangampungan Ko Ranaw (Four Lake-Based Principalities).

      Iranun nomenclature in relation to names of majors tribes were attributed to its geographical connotation. The people who remain in the coastal areas of the Uranen Kingdom is called Mragat, which means people of the seacoast (Ipagilidanen in Iranun version). The people who established villages around the ranaw (lake) is called Mranaw, which means people of the lake. The people who established villages in the inner part of the island in relation to its coastal areas is called Idalemen. The people who established villages beyond the dalem (inner part) limit is called Isbanganen. The people who established villages and reject the Ideology introduced by the Shariffs, in the inner part of the Island in relation to Slangan is generally called Tiduray. The people who established villages in the Upper Stream of the Pulangi River is called Irayaan (Taw sa Raya in some version). The people who established villages in the inner part of the Island in relation to the first seat of Uranen Kingdom at Tbok is generally called Subanen. Tiduray was the mother of all highlander tribes in the Cotabato areas. Subanen was the mother of all the highlanders tribes in Zamboanga areas. Kalagan was the mother of all highlander tribes of Davao areas.

      There are Iranuns in some kampongs (communities) in Sabah, Malaysia. Their existence in the Malaysian Archepilago specifically Sabah was attributed to the request of the Sultan of Brunie from Sultan Kudarat of reinforcement to augment his forces to defend his sovereign against invaders. The reinforcement was composed of Iranun warriors. After the defeat of the invaders, the Sultan of Brunie offered them a portion of his sovereign sultanate for them to live as an expression of friendship and gift for them. The warriors got their their families and transfer their residence and citizenship to Brunie Darussalam. They lived there. Their descendants are the identified Iranuns in Sabah.

      Uranen Kingdom whose seat of government was in Tbok had foreign contacts with the Sri Vishaya and Majapahet Empires. According to the oral tradition of the Iranun, their relationship was focused on education based on the system of their time. The type/system of education was more on mystical and rituals. Iranun during that civilization was experts in the languages of the two Malayan Empires. Some of the reading materials of those remote past are still preserved. Some of the Iranun genealogists stated that the mother of Princess Pagunguwan, the daughter of Rajah Urangguwan was one of the daughters of the last Emperor of the Sri Visahya Emperor.

      The two Royal Sovereigns shared technical skills especially on warriorship. Out of this program the Uranen Royal Warriors (armed forces) had been strengthened. Their skill in field combats and marine skills had improved. It is possible that the skill which was saw and encountered by the Spaniards attributed to this program.

      It is interesting to include in this script the inhabitants of Liusong (Luzon), Aninipay (Panay), Mactan and other ancient Kingdoms and sovereigns of the primitive past. What is the relation of Iranun with of the native inhabitants of Liusong, Aninipay, Mactan, and others ancient sovereigns? With due respect to other authorities in history, oral tradition of the Iranun says that all existing sovereigns during the ancient period in this country (now Philippines) were Iranuns. The inhabitants of the Sovereign Maynilad, Tondo, Mactan, Aninipay (Panay) and the Uranen were all Iranun. Thus Iranun was the original nationality of the people of the ancient these Islands. They were confederated to each other. Historians only stated that only the four Sovereigh districts of Aninipay were confederated. The truth was that all existing Sovereign places during the ancient past were confederated. Their national identity was Irarun.

      The early contacts of the Iranuns with foreign nations (Kingdoms) became the bridge in improving the way of life of the Uranen Kingdom. Social relationships were established especially on marriage. The present time tells and shows the existence of the Iranun.

      Iranun was the first identified native inhabitants of Mindanaw, which was historians and scholars failed to mentioned their written works. This perhaps the result of colonization. Their villages were established along the coastal areas of the present Moro Gulf especifically Iranun Bay. In some cases, they established their vilages along the river banks (Maynilad and Tondo as an example; and Katidtuan as in Kutawato area). The present ethnic tribes in Mindanaw were originated from the Iranun. Iranun as a nationality was destroyed and put into ruinity because of colonialism. Colonialism dismantled Iranun as a nationality and introduced words although they were native in implication but they were used as instrument for colonization.

      Iranun like other ancient nations had early contacts with other foreign nation. It had established a contacts with Sri Vishaya and Madjapahit Empires. It was a sovereign nation. At present time still considered a major tribe among the ethnic tribes in the Island

      Iranun is co-existence of the Aetas (Pygmies) or Negritos of Liusong (Luzon). According to the oral tradition of the Iranun the size of the typical Iranun was between four (4) feet and five (5) feet height, an average of 4.5 feet in height. They were originally brown, and moderately flat nose. Iranun had been intermarriage with the karibang, ( a small size bodied human bing usually found living near the falls) and karengke ( another small size bodied human being usually found living in the caves). Other Iranun genealogists say that Iranun was a cross breed between the migrants from the two big ancient kingdoms (Sri Vishaya and Majapahit)and the karibang line and karengke line. It was again breed with Arabs during the advent of the Shariffs.

      Iranun had foreign contacts and relations with China (Ming Dynasty). The Uranen Kingdom sent four (4) of its rajahs, namely; Rajah Batarabuwasan, Rajah Pagarabuwasan, Maharabuwasan, and Rajah Yuwaharabuwasan. Dr. Sonia Zaide (1985) identified them as King Prabu, King Mahalchilim, and King Pahala. The four (4) rajahs had been welcomed by the Emperor Yung Lo of the Ming Dynasty. The civilization of the Chinese was introduced in the Kingdom through them. Most of the things which were seen by them in the China beneficial and advantageous to the Kingdom and its people were adopted and it became a part of the culture of the Iranun. Dresses, ladies style and ornaments (pandara), Brass wares, costume(loose trouser for women) and other social patterns were adopted from the chinese people. In warriorship, Iranun had learnt a lot from the chinese. The skill in using bow and arrow, using kampilan, kris and other ancient weapons were improved. In household likewise a lot of things had been learnt from the chinese (cooking, embroidery and others) were also learnt from the chinese.

      Iranun had also foreign contacts and relations with India. Iranun learnt more languages in India including their mystical knowledge. Oral tradition says that many of the medical and magical knowledges of the Iranun were learnt from the Indian. The ancient formula of computing the one year days. The ancient Iranun astronomers had computed one year 354 year (leaf year) and 355 days ( common year). They arranged the 12 months by 30 days and 29 days; fifteen days (sbang) and fifteen days (delem). In short astronomical knowledge of the Iranun were learnt from Indian. This formula was confirmed by the modern science. Thus the astronomical knowledge of the Iranun during ancient time was accurate because it survived and rearched the modern era. Medical knowledge ( Katabibtabib) using oration and medicinal plants were learnt from the Indian people. The civilization of the Iranun had been improved through foreign contacts and relations (Chinese, Indians, Malays and Arabs)

      Rajah Marikudo (Merkat Ado in some version), ruler of Aninipay(Panay) Island wherein the ten Borneans datus met was an Iranun. Western and Filipino writers (historians) failed to identify the true identity of the datu. Rajah Merkat Ado was one of the ancient sovereigns who ruled the island especially Aninipay. As it was described that Iranun was a hospitable people, Rajah Merkat Ado welcomed them (Borneans) in his sovereign kingdom. Actually a portion of Aninipay (Panay) probably coastal area was offered by the Rajah for the Bornean datus to live and establish their villages. Historians said that it was sold to the Bornean datus. It is contrary to the literature of the Iranun tarsila that the place was not sold but offered as a sign of friendship and hospitability. To recognize the hospitability of the Iranun in Aninipay led by Rajah Merkat Ado; Datu Puti, the leader of the Borneans offered marriage with the daughter of Rajah Merkat Ado. A marriage contract was entered into between the natives and the Borneans. A dowry was offered and given in terms of one(1) set of golden nicklace and gold sayap (salakot in some version). After the marriage ceremony, Rajah Merkat Ado asked an opinion from his Council of Elders the best action in order to reinforce the established relationship between his realm and the Borneans. The Council of Elders categorically said: Give the low portion (coastal area) of your territory to your daughter as her part in your ancestral domain. You transfer and establish your capital and Palace (Turugan) to the inner part of your territory. Oral tradition says that about one kilometer from sea coast going upper stream of the Aninipay river the location of the new capital and palace of the Rajah. Datu Puti and the Princess live harmony with other Borneans(11th century).

      The intermarriage between the two Sovereigns (Bornean and Iranun) prospered and expanded going north direction. Batangas was the first village (community) established. Intermarraige in the later decades were observed between the native aetas and the breed people. Later on as decades passed through, the Kingdom of Maynilad and Tondo were established.

      The socio-political interactions of the major Asian ancient sovereigns (Majapahit, Sri Vishaya Empires, Chinese Dysnasties, Indian Kingdom and the Ancient Uranen Kingdom) sprang out a well breed Iranun which constitutes the Last Uranen Kingdom under Rajah Urangguwan.

      Generally, Iranun was the first identified people who live in the ancient past of the civilization in this part of the globe. They were the people of the Uranen Kingdom. They established their villages along the coastal areas of the Iranun Bay and river banks. They were the people whom the Shariffs met in this Island. The origin of the Iranun people was from four feet to five feet in height. Their civilization belonged to the primitive civilization. However they had established contacts and relationship with foreign sovereigns and kingdoms. The first stage of breed of the Iranun with Shariff Aulia was the breed of Iranun whom Shariff Kabunsuan was met and later on arranged with them a marriage affinity. This is the first line of generation among the Iranun where native blood was breed with arab blood. They called it kia saripan.

      Iranun as a People

      Iranun was the aborigine and original inhabitants of Mindanaw. They were belonged to the primitive and prehistory people. They were identified by the Iranun tradition as Karibang and Karinngki line of descent. These people were analogous with that of the Aetas (Negritoes) of Luzon and other places. They were breed with the foreign people ( Indonesian, Malays, Arabs, Indians, and Chinese). Iranun tarsila stated that they were the rapo people (foreigners) who migrated to the Island thousands of years ago who married the daughters of the different rajahs in the Island (11th-12th century). These marriage affinal ties sprung the modern (present) Iranun in the Island.

      Government and Succession of Authority

      The government of the ancient (prehistory) Iranun was simple but effective. They (rulers) had one hundred pre cent control over their sovereign. Each engged (community) had its ruler. They were exercising the Obsolute Monarchial System. Usually, patriarchal line or type adopted as a procedure of succession. After the father death or resignation, the son automatically replaces and sits the throne. In some cases, the daughter replaces the father in the throne. The system was family succession. The ruler was assisted by mantris (cabinets in the modern times). The legislation was vested in the Council of Elders ( in the mainland the luwaran or radawan in some version was the example, and Ruma Bitchara in the Lupa Soog). Thus the government was monarchy and the succession of authority was hereditary.

      Relationship With other Villages

      The ancient political relations among Iranun villages and principalities was confederation. Each Iranun village was independent to each other. However they were confederated. There was no central government. However, their socio-political relationship was very strong. They had established the so called allied warriors for defense purposes against any foreign attempts and invasion.

      Original Establishment and Location of Iranun Villages

      The ancient Iranun erstablished their vilages and communities along the seacoast of the Iranun Bay in the Moro Gulf (Crab Gulf). In some instances, the ancient Iranun lived along river banks. These villages expanded in the course of time. Until whitemen came for invasion and colonization. The villages of the ancient Iranun served at the same time as kuta. The turugan has a biruar (tower in the modern time) as watch house or guard house. Usually the biruar was built on the top of a tree or any tall object. The purpose was to oversee the coming enemy(s). In a hilly places, biruar was built on the top of the hill.

      Source of Living and Livelihood

      The ancient Iranun were good farmers and fishermen. They were living in the fertile vast land and sea. They supplement farming and fishing by hunting deers and other wild animals for their daily needs and consumption. Other source of livelihood was black and gold smith industry. Ancient Iranun were good blacksmither and gold smither. For women, Iranun were good waver of mats and malong. The ancient Iranun used barter trading (among themselves and intervillages). The fishermen exchanged fish to rice/corn/ube and other agriculture products/crops for their daily consumption. The farmer did the same. Therefore their medium of exchange in the absence of money was bartering in order to acquire a property or anything for them to survive.

      Costumes and Dresses

      Ancent Iranun man were using samping (vernacular for bahag) and sablay (Tsaliko in modern time), and tubaw. However, ancient Iranun were shoesless. They were not using shoes due to absence of knowledge on shoemaking. They were footbbeares peeople. For the women, ancient Iranun were using loose blouses in the primitive style. Later, it was improved when foreign contacts with the chinese.

      Characteristics /Quality(s)/Habits

      Ancient Iranun possessed a very hospitable, courteous, respectfull, obedience and other good qualities. They were brave and good combatant (warrior). They were champion of freedom and defense. They usually considered their lawfull leaders as second to prophets. All orders of their leaders were faithfully followed. They were peace-maker and loving people. They were good friend but magnificient enemy in time of war.

      System of Education

      The ancient Iranun system of education was very simple. There was no school building and other materials. They used their individual houses as school building and classrooms. The father was the teacher of the boy children. The father taught his male children on manhood responsibilities and obligations such as farming, hunting, carpentry, and other manhood works. Skill on warriorship was the most important training among boy children. For the girl children, ancient Iranun taught their girl children on motherhood responsibilities and obligations such as cooking, waving, sewing, embroidery, washing clothes and kitchen utensils, rearing of children and motherhood works. Kapaningit sa engged ( Love and jealous of country was inculcated in the minds and hearts of each Iranun minors) by their teacher (mother).

      Each Iranun minor was trained to love the country. Love of country was the noblest act. They emphasized that country emanates all aspects of humanity. Iranun people were good nation makers. Both man and woman were required to study nationalism and patriotism. Thus the system of education of the ancient Iranun was simple. The emphasis was focus on love of country and humanity.


      Ancient Iranun was identical with that of the Darangan Period. Some Iranun geneanologists say that Darangan Period was one of the periods of the ancient Iranun. The hero of the Darangan was Rajah Bantugen. The seat of the government was in Benbaran (situated in the north west of Bukidnon) near Wao. It was a name of a civilization of people during ancient time. The civilization was more on mystic and rituals activities. The Darangan was composed of decades with different episodes. It described most the characteritics of the Iranun as people. The true meaning of love and wisdom, leadership, livelihood (economics and industry) socio-political, humanity and other good quality and characteristics were described in the episodes of Darangen. Iranun oral tradition say that Darangan as a civilization was composed of six (6) federal states which Bembaran was the capital. These federal states were: Da Madiar a Linog, Sawlaya A Salg, Daguwatan sa Oray, Pindulunan sa Ragat, Sadurog ko Marandang, and Bembran. Their rulers were Batara Mangadka, Batara Mapalala Makaug, Batara Bakuludan sa Waki, Batara Lumuday sa Barat, Batara Tundugen, Batara Rinawraw Tubpaan, and Batara Bantugen respectively. The cabinets were: Daranda, Mabaning, and Lumbatan. The adore and beloved princess was Princess Lawanen.

      Iranun has many bayoks. Usually the oldfolks/elders during those times were using bayok in their communication. Examples of these bayoks are: Biwang Kawanan Tinday o Pagilidan Pipandaraan, Iranun Pipparasan, Ranaw Gilanggumilang, Maguindanao rawaten, Slangan da marimbang which connotes nobility and maharlika. Others like: Pidzan pagzir so ganding na so kapanganonen bo na maliwanag den sa dar which means hospitability and courteousness. Benar e rinaw so ragat na sisirungen a barat so karante o alongan which means problems and sorrows.

      The principal village ( principality) was Benbaran, the capital of the Darangan civilization, wherein the Turugan (royal house) was established. Turugan was the official residence and court of the Ayunan Pangadapen O Inayunan O Kampong sa Ilian a Benbaran ( Official Royal Court of the Most Respected and Honored Leader of Benbaran), His Majesty Ayunan Pangadapen Pasandalan A Murog, the great ruler. All important matters either personal or non personal business transactions were done in the Turugan. Other villages (principalities) were Bugabong A Kumara, the village of Her Majesty Paramata Gandingan. Bugabong A Kumara was civilized as Benbaran. Iranun experts in Darangan say that Benbaran and Bugabong A Kumara were equal and parallell. Sarbaka Kilaten, Gamaniyog were states of Bugabong a Kumara.

      Music, Musical Instrument and Plays

      Darangen as a song was the most popular name or title of a song during the Darangan Period. Darangen as a title of a song described the entire civilization. Man and woman knew very well to perform/sing darangen. Darangen as a song was usually sang at night. Bayok was another name of a song which usually performed by two or three performers. The Mranaw sometimes called Kambayoka. The performers were called Unur. Mamayog was another name of a song, performed by one gentleman and one lady. The mamayog described the loyalty and courteousness of a husband to his wife during the ancient Iranun (Darangen Period). Some Iranun folks identified another song entitled Darangen a Babay (Most Beloved and Adored Lady) was commonly sang/ performed in the Slangan Principality. Princess Tinabon was the star who was being described in the song.

      The kulintang, agong, gandingan, pamindira, and dibakan were usually and commonly used as musical instrument. It was called in the Iranun as Lima A mamagenesupa (Lima Ka Daragia in Ranaw). This musical instruments were usually used during fiest day or durangna (wedding ceremony). During the ancient time, Lima Ka Mamagenesupa was used also during rituals. Kutyapi (Kudyapi in some version), palendag, suling, kubing were among the musical instruments during the ancient time in the Iranun civilization. Generally, all the person who reach the maturity stage of human development knew to use and play these instruments. Sagayan was a stage play which usually performed by young man describing the skill and bravery of the Iranun warriors. The sagayan was usually performed during rituals. Sagayan was usually performed by two young men. Minors can do it. In some Iranun wedding fiest/ceremony, sagayan was being performed in the kakuyog sa damak (damak is a cooked sweet foods deliver to the house of the bride from groom house) and in the procession ( kuyog) of the groom. It was usually put ahead of the parade. Sagayan during wedding ceremony is accompanied by an unta (it is look like a camel played and manipulated by a youngman to move). Kulintang (Lima A Mamagenesupa) was being play as a music of the procession. Sinulog was a kulintang tune usually used as a music in the procession.

      Wedding Fiest/Ceremony

      During the ancient Iranun, wedding fiest/ceremony was a long process. Parental system was the usual practice. Iranun usually practice maharlika system. The man who was belonged to the ruling family of the village marries the daughter of the ruling family of other village (Prince is for Princess Principle).

      Iranun wedding process undergoes four stages. These stages were: panunuriman (observation), pangingidong (Whispering) from the kakamaman side (groom side), sarangguni (actual negotiation of the two parties facilitiated by other group, usually the Council of Elders of the bride family), and gurangna (wedding ceremony). In some cases, sarangguni and gurangna were fused into one. It depends on the negotiation.

      During the ancient Iranun, dowry (sunggodan/btang/btad sa adat) was term of material not money, for example: land/lot, bulawan (gold), and other valuable materials (animals). In some cases uripin (slaves were accepted as dowry or even the entire sovereign of the groom father served as dowry in case of a single child). After signing of contract between the two parties, the groom was granted to court and talked/’invite the bride to ocassion with one chaperon. The groom was granted to sleep in the house of the bride. Wedding ceremony among maharlika (ruling family) was full of decors (pandara). There were activity (siapa sa manggis, kulintang contest, and other wedding activities were observed) to give honor and respect to the royal wedding.

      The common class (kadakelan) used only sambulayang with no flag and pamanay. The uripin has no wedding ceremony. The ruling family used the complete set of pandara (pasandalan, sambulayang with flag at the top of the pole, ubor-ubor, and pamanay). Usually bright colors were used (red,green and yellow). Among the ancient Iranun red means bravery, green means sovereign, and yellow means ruling family. These colors were only used and attributed to the ruling family.

      Properties and Inheritance

      The whole sovereign (integral territory) of each village (kampong) belonged to the Datu. The property would be inherited by the legitimate heir(s) including rulership. The kadakilan(commoner) can possessed properties subject to bues (tax in the modern time). The uripin (slave) cannot possessed properties because themselves were the property of the datu. The property(s) of the kadakilan (commoner) would be inherited by their heirs.


      The ancient Iranun used customary laws. Usually the council of elders were the drafter of the customary laws. The draft was presented in the followers during fiest days. In ancient Aninipay the Code of Kalantiaw was formulate and odopted. In the ancient Iranun radawan (Code of Models) was formulated. The Radawan defined and described socio-political, family relations, religious/spiritual, and others which would be observed and followed. There were process involved in the implementation of laws especially in court: baina, amad, karina, matakapala (clarity, justification, suspect and testified respectively).


      The religion of the ancient Iranun was greatly influenced by the state religion of Sri Vishaya and Madjapahit Empires. The arrival of Shariff Aulia gave a significant effect to the religion. Sufism as a belief was introduced. Thus they became a Muslim-Sufie.

      Supertitious Belief

      The ancient Iranun had many supertitious beliefs. The examples were: eclipse, black butterfly, snakes enters the house and others. There were about hundreds of supertitious beliefs of the Iranun. Tunung was identified to be a powerful spirit.


      The ancient language of the Iranun was originated from the Malayo-Polynesian Language of the Pacifics. In course of time most of the original language of the Iranun were modified due influence of other language. The original language used in the Darangan was an Iranun language. The original language had been modified due to: conquest, intermarriage with foreign nation, adoption, and duplication. Out these factors the present language evolved. The present Iranun language is generally accepted as medium of communication in Mindanaw except Lupah Suog. The present Muslim can understand Iranun. Thus Iranun is the mother language of the Muslims in Mindanao.


      The ancient alphabets of the Iranun were patterned in India. The system of writing was one of the good achievements of the Iranun during its foreign contacts with the Indian people. Although it was primitive, the Iranun have their own system of writing. This system of writing was influenced and gradually changed to the present system patterned from the arabs. They called it kirim. The kirim was looked like sometimes a bird, a tree, a roof, and cloud-shape.


      The ancient Iranun has its own arts. The most popular one until the present time is the ukir ( engraving naga). The ukir is used almost furnitures and fixtures of the Iranun including houses. The bawor (cabenit or apparador now a days) has an ukir differrent forms and patterned. Sarimanok is another type of ukir during the ancient Iranun which was passed generation to generation. Most of the museums and libraries now a days have these arts displayed.

      Science and Math

      The ancient Iranun were good scientists of their time. They were astronomers. They name heavenly bodies as: makabangis, sulo a mangangayaw, manok, madakel, laya. They arranged the twelve months (12) to 30 days and 29 days. Therefore there are three hundred fifty four (354) day in one year (common year) and three hundred fifty five (355) leaf year. They divided one month into two groups: Sbang and delem. They used heavenly bodies as compass. They can determine west, east, south, north by the used of the heavenly bodies at night. Their knowledge in astronomy and navigation was older than the knowledge of the western people (Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch and others). There were eight (8) tahons, five (5) kutika, and eight (8) bintang. All these are instruments of the ancient Iranun in compution. Even they were in the mid of the forest, they can calculate low or high tide through this knowledge in science. In Mathematics/arithmetic, gibo (thousand), laksa (one hundred thousand), pandang (million of thousasands).

      They had also a system of counting. They used riray system. Some of the mathematical terminology were: laksa, salaksa, laksalaksa, yuta, sayuta,sayutayuta. All these were few among their mathematical terminologies. Arabic numerals and system of counting including mathematical nomenclature were introduced and adopted during the Shariffs period. Thus a modification was observed.

      Territorial Defense

      The ancient Iranun were good defenders of their territory and freedom. They consider any individual or group who do not signifying its interest to enter the Iranun territory (both sea and land) as enemy. Coordination (Pagtaw) was very important to them. To them (Iranun) when you enter the territory of the other sovereign without coordination was considered sin and unlawful. The invasion and other marine activity of the Spaniards and its allied forces/group/tribe were considered unlawful. Out of this concept, Iranun warriors were forced to drive out through drastic action (by force) all groups or individuals who attempt to enter their territory without prior notice of friendship. Their defense tactics and mechanisms were misconceptualized and misunderstood by filipino and western authors. Filipino and foreign writers described Iranun as pirates. They were not pirates. They only defend their territories against invasion of foreigners.

      Iranun in the Shariffs Period

      Uranen Kingdom was the first kingdom ever had in the ancient period (prehistory). It was the mother of all kingdoms established after decades or centuries. Shariff Aulia was the first arab muslim with missionary works who stepped-foot and landed in the Uranen Kingdom (Tbok was the seat of government). He married the native princess named Bai Pagunguwan (Iranun tradition identified her as Bai sa Pandan). Out of their wedlock, they begot the four rajahs (Makaapen, Dungklang, Maraguia, and Budtol). The introduction of the belief brought into the Kingdom through Shariff Aulia was the first stage of the Iranun civilization recorded in history. The old belief was gradually changed to what is present belief of the Muslims in the world. The system of government, socio-economic, trade and industry and other walks of life were improved and strengthened. The primitive system of government was changed to more structurized system. The Caliphate was introduced described as Sultanate System.

      Iranun tarsila say that Makaapen married Lingayen, a daughter of the property custodian of Rajah Urangguwan begot Princess Angintabu. The Princess was married by Shariff Kabunsuan (1475). Out of their wedlock, they begot Saripada Makaalang. Saripada Makaalang married his first cousin name Princess Pidsarawdan, a daughter of Rajah Dungklang, begot Saripada Bankaya. Saripada Bankaya married a lady of Lupah Suog named Princess Sri Pangyan Mampay Laila begot Saripada Raut (laut in some version) Buisan begot Sultan Dipatuan Kudarat, the strongest and has a longest term of realm among the Iranun sultans. It is interesting to note that the term saripada was used as prefix three times before the given names: Makaalang, Bankaya, and Raut. The term has a Malayan origin probably a term existing and used during the two big empires (Sri Vishaya and Madjapahit). It connotes ruler or nobility. Thus it was a royalty title used during the ancient period of political structure which is equivalent to Sultan (Surutan in Iranun version).

      The introduction of sultanate system gradually changed the rajahship (primitive system patterned from ancient (prehistory system of government) to more advanced political system. Iranun as a people with distinct nationality entered into a neolistic civilization called Shariff Period. The Iranun accepted the Ideology introduced by the Shariffs.

      Iranun During Sultanate System

      It was presented in the preceeding paragraphs that the two identified Shariffs (Aulia and Kabunsuan) intermarraige with the Iranun Rajah families ( Rajah Urangguwan and Rajah Makaapen respectively). Out of this social relationship, the new socio-political practices was merged and developed. The offspring of Shariff Aulia-Princess Pagunguwan was intermarriage in the later decades with the offspring of Shariff Kabunsuan-Princess Angintabu. Out of this mixed and interwaved bloodline of descent sprang a royalty lineage of decendant. Sultan Kudarat, the first native ruler used Sultan as a royal political title and authority eas of Iranun-Shariff line of descent with a blood sprang from the Karibang-Karingke line of descen. Out of these facts, it is safe to say that the first Sultan of the native breed from the Iranun-Shariff line belonged to the Uranen Kingdom which exercised its sovereign authority and power over the Crab Gulf (Moro Gulf) with concentration in the Iranun Bay. Thus Rajah Urangguwan of the ancient past (prehistory) and Sultan Kudarat of the Shariff period (Sultanate System)were the fathers of the royal line of descent among the native inhabitants. Out of these facts all claimants of royalty line of descent are all descended from Iranun-Shariff marriage affinal ties

      Sultan Kudarat realm was a continuation of the ancient political system spearheaded by Rajah Urangguwan. The seat of the former government was in Ramitan (Lamitan in the Filipino authors). It is one of the barangays of the municipality of Sultan Gumander, Lanao del Sur in the present geographical political division. Ramitan was the first seat of government led by Sultan Kudarat. The seat of government of the latter was in Tbok. Tbok is one of the barangays of the municipality of Malabang, Lanao del Sur in the present geographical political division. It is interesting to note that the two capitals (seat of governments) are neigbors. Sultan Gumander and Malabang are only separated by Picong River and both situated and located along the sea coast of the Iranun Bay of the Crab Gulf ( LayaganGulf).

      Iranun During Spaniah Invasion

      The first recorded Spanish invasion in the Mindanao (Uranen) was on 1596. This was led by Capt. Figueroa. Figueroa was killed during the fight. The gesture and action of the Spaniards was considered by the native Iranuns as aggression and and invasion. The Council of Elders unanimously agreed to adopt a technique for effective defense against the Spaniards. The top executives namely Rajah Raut Buisan, Rajah, Sirungan, and Rajah Tagal suggested to the Council to launch a counter offensive. The proposal was approved. They attacked Visayas islands, Mindoro, Bicolandia, and Southern Tagalog. The counter offensive of the natives was misconceptualized by the Spanish and Filipino historians. They described it as piratic activity. This is not true and uncorrect. The natives had just adopt an effective technique for defense purposes. They only defended their sovereign state and nation against foreign invasion. he counter attacked were launched in 1599, 1600, and 1602.

      Change of System From Kingdomship to Sultanate

      Meanwhile, in the year 1617, Kingdomship was officially changed to Sultanate System. The first ruler of the new system was Kudarat, the son of Rajah Raut Buisan. His renal name was His Majesty Sultan Mohammad Dipatuan Kabunsuan Urangguwan. He established his seat of government at Ramitan (now a barangay of Sultan Gumander, Lanao del Sur).

      Invasion Continued

      On March 13, 1637 (Zaide), Governor Corcuera invaded Ramitan. The native inhabitants fearlessly defended their territory against the Superpower Spain. The Sultan retreated in the inner portion of Ramitan. He moved to Dapaw Lake for a week. The Council of Elders agreed to the proposal of the Sultan to transfer his Court (capital) at Magulaling, Balabagan, Lanao del Sur. In this seat of government, the Sultan was able to expand his sovereign powers and authority. The villages and communities within the Crab Gulf (Moro Gulf) and the inner parts of the Island, except Surigao and Agusan. He established socio-political alliances with the local (kampong) leaders and foreign nations like Brunie Darussalam, Java, Makassar, Sumatra, Lahore, Singapore, China, and India. He was able to mobilize all sectors of the Uranen Sultanate.

      Iranun in the Height of the Divide-and-Rule Technique

      After the death of Sultan Mohammad Dipatuan Kudarat Kabunsuan Urangguwan, the Divide-and-Rule Technique was applied by the colonizers (Spaniards and Dutch). Sultan Tahiruddin Malinog was supported by the Dutch. On the other side, Sultan Manamir was supported by the Spaniards for supremacy. Rivalry in the succession issue was the gate to divide the native Iranuns. The whole Sultanate was divided into two groups (Malinog group and Manamir group). This was the beginning of the subdivisioon of the native inhabitants. This also leads to some corrupt use words, and colonial terms although native but it implied destructions. Here are some examples of corrupt use of terms and words: Luzon (Liusong), Panay (Aninipay), Visayas (Vishaya), Tagalog (Taga- ilog), Illana (Iranun), Zambonga (Samboangan), Lanao (Ranaw), and many others.

      Iranun During American Regime

      It was described that more than three centuries, the native Iranun fought for defense. They were not not conquered until the time of signing of the Treaty of Paris on December 10, 1898 which ended the Spanish-American War for Supremacy. The Royal Government of Spain ceded all the controlled territories and exercised its power and authority to United States of America.The present Mindanaw, Palawan, and Sulu were not included in the Treaty because they were not conquered.

      The Americans amplified and use the same technique (Divide-and-Rule). They only improved and strengthened the technique used by the Spaniards. hey used words which connotes places in order to deceive the native. With due respect to some historians, Maguindanao as a name of a place which connotes a traditional name which is implying sovereignty is not correct. It is used and amplified by the Americans to destroy the original place which implies sovereignty the SLANGAN DA MARIMBANG which means Slangan the original and has no equal.

      Cotabato, Lanao, Zamboanga, Davao are all colonial term used, applied and amplified by the colonizers (Americans) to destroy the tradition of the native. The original was Slangan, Ranaw, Samboangan, Tagalook respectively.

      Effect of Colonization

      The most destructive effect of the colonization to the Iranun and Uranen as a nation and state respectively was deception to the next generation. Spanish writers and historians (Pigafetta) wrote a wrong information and data. He described the native inhabitants whom Magellan met as Moores (a nation whom they encountered in war in Africa). This people has the same quality and ability in combat with the native inhabitants of the Island. Thus Pigaffeta baptized the Iranuns as Moores. Later the term Moores was corruptly used by other writers- the present form Moro. The usage of the term Moro to refer the native inhabitants in the Island was amplified by the American writers. Thus the original nation and state – Iranun and Uranen respectively were forgotten in the annal of history of the Island.

      The colonization has contributed much to the introduction of western culture, belief, customs, practices, and others aspects of life which were harmful and destructive to the culture, tradition, belief, practices of the Iranun as a native inhabitants. The political system was introduced which caused to the gradual modification of the political system of the natives. The socio-political system of the Iranun was totally destroyed suring the American regime. The Americans organized the Moro province for the purpose of total elimination of the residues and remains of the past civilization enjoyed by the native inhabitants from the ancient Uranen Kingdom down to Uranen Sultanate led by His Majesty Sultan Mohammad Dipatuan Kudarat Kabunsuan Urangguwan. Thus introduction of Cotabato, Lanao, Davao, Zamboanga, and Sulu was a strategy of the colonizer to eliminate the truth. Cotabato, Lanao, Davao, Zamboanga, and Sulu were native in connotation but colonization by intention.

      Many terms and words which were corruptly introduced and used for colonization purposes. The examples of these words are: Dagiangas, later it becomes Dagiangas later on it was changed to General Santos. Tacudong it was modified to Tacurong, Kutawato, later on it was modified to Cotabato. Lupah Suog, later on it was modofied to Sulu, Aninipay, later on it was modified to Panay. Irong-irong, later on it was modified to Iloilo. Antik, later on it was modofied to Antique. Tukudan, later on it was modified to Tucuran, Pangagian, later on it was modified to Pagadian. Marges a ig, laterlater on it was modified Margosatubig, Kumaladang, later on it was modified to Kumalarang. Padampadang, later on it was modified to Parang and many others. All of these are colonization srategy.

      The foremost effect of the colonization to the Iranun natives was the so called colonial mentality. The mental or intellectual skill of the native becomes dependent and submissive to the western and americans. The Iranun natives become nothing and mentally slave of the foreign education. Therefore, conquest and colonization were the root caused of the problem in the Island (Palawan, Sulu, and Mindanao: Pandawan, Lupah Suog, Uranen of the ancient past respectively). Therefore the colonization wiped out everything.

      What is Iranun?

      Iranun as a word/term is composed two words which were joined together to formed a word with distinct interpretation and description. The word/term IRA means remains, residue, or silt. These word/term may refer to a place or area which was formed out of a long process evolved from remains or residual process that caused a formation of a place. NUN means people with distinct culture, laws, belief, tradition, of residual and remains process. It implies all places predominantly inhabited by the Iranun was a water millions of years ago which gradually becomes a land/soil through residual process. Thus, the territory of the Uranen Kingdom was a water which gradually becomes a soil for the people to estabilsh their comunity. Out of this concept, it is hereby described that Iranun is a group of people who were belonged to the ancient or prehistoric period of civilization which lived and occupied a certain territory (water in origin) which was formed through a residual or remains (silt) process thousands of years ago with organized socio-political structure with distinct culture, belief, custom and tradition. Thus Iranun is a nation not a tribe.

      • Iranium is a tribe only all of these were invented stories of the previous story tellers. How can you prove that Gregorio Zaide was correct in his historical facts. Can tell me why many Christians in the Philippines? If you are telling that Muslims ruled in Mindanao why until now the Mindanao never achieve its goal? because of many Muslim tribes they don’t like to mingle with one another for one society of Muslim tribes.

    3. Why then doesn’t the Philippine government consider this easy remedy.

      Since it was the Sulu area which Malaysia wanted, give the peace agreement legs by making Sulu then the Autonomous Region. Mindanao in general then stays in whole.

      The Moro’s then have the ability to go easily over to Malaysia, ending also the conflicts within Muslim people who wish to stay in the Philippines and live under the Philippines laws and rules.

      I am also sure, you then could sell to Malaysia, Sulu within defined territories keeping shipping and natural resources within agreeable boundaries for the Philippines to still enjoy.

      Now two benefits, The Sulu Autonomous region can now be sold for revenues and the monies can relocate those not wanting to stay there, and the Government of Malaysia can now pay for Sulu to run under their rules and laws.

      • What makes you think the Tausug Muslims of Sulu as well as the Christians there will agree to being made members of Malaysia?

      • in short IRanun was a CITIZENship during the time not a TRIBE. ( LONG a PERIOD of time before the coming of SPANISH and the term PILIPINO Citizen) Iranun is followers of HINDISM BUT convrted to ISLAM due to the arrival of SHARIF AWLIA. they are native in the ISLAND along the other 12 islamized tribe like TAUSUA, SUBANEB=n and etc. including the LUMADs or IP’s of MINDANAO.

    4. Actually, there is a word “bangsa” pronounced “bangen-sa” in Iranaon (wrongly called Maranaw), Magindanaon and Tausog languages.

      The word can mean nation, people or one’s ancestry. It also means honor in Basa Iranaon.

      In Ranao, we say “Pakadaagen o Allah so manga bangensa tano sa Magindanao”, meaning, “May God grant victory to our people in Magindanao”. We also say “So manga bangensa tano sa Solog”, meaning, “Our people (or relatives) in Sulu”.

      When someone exhibit indecent and obscene behaviour, he’s described as “Sipotan a bangensa” meaning he’s gone nuts.

      The Muslims look down upon non-Muslims because the latter don’t have “bangensa”, meaning, the non-Muslims are not on the Salsila and they could be descendants of “balbal”. Mkkkkkkk (Pilandok’s LOL).

      It is true that the Muslims in the Philippines were never united as one political unit, ruled by a single Sulutan.

      There is the Sulutan of Sulu who rule the Tausog and other tribes in Basilan, Tawi Tawi and Palawan. Magindanao has 3 Sulutans and there is the 15 Royal Houses of Ranao. All Sultanates are co-equal, Sulutan Qudarat didn’t take orders from the Sulutan of Sulu and the Iranaons didn’t take orders from Sulutan Qudarat even though he was half Iranaon (he was burried in Ranao).

      Together, did we consider ourselves one Bangensa? Absolutely!

      When the Iranaons introduce themselves to the Magindanaon and Tausog, we say “So manga Bangensa niyo sa Ranao” (your people from Ranao) and vice versa.

      In Ranao, there are tiles that bespeak our relationship. These are “Mama sa Magindanao” (Brother from Magindanao) and “Mama sa Solog” (Brother from Sulu). There are also the “Bai” (lady) equivalent.

      Besides intermarriages, our people are bound by Islam and our common history of resistance against the “saruang a tao” (foreigners).

      We are a single nation with multitudes of Sultanates. The form of government was more like a federation.

      As to the word Moro, every Dodong, Lolong and Pakbol knows the origin of the word.

      Like the word Indios, Moro is foreign. The word is not in our local vocabulary thus we borrowed its derogatory connotations from our neighbors. Even in Basa Iranaon, Moro is a bad word.

      Our elders didn’t accept the enemy name-calling, that’s why our name in the Constitution since the inception of the Republic is Muslim not Moros.

      Like our brothers in Bosnia who simply call themselves Muslims, we too used the name of our religion as our national identity. The name Muslim in Philippine context refers to a people and culture not just a religion.

      We call ourselves simply Muslims or Bangsa Muslim.

      As the author says, the word Bangsamoro is new. The name is neither Spanish nor local. The word came into existence in the late 1960s at the start of the Muslim uprising.

      In an TV interview with Nur Misuari few years back, he spoke of how he had to quarrel with our elders in Jolo when he coined the word Bangsamoro because they didn’t like it.

      Bangsamoro is actually a secular, all inclusive concept. It is not all Muslims as defined in the BBL.

      Bangsamoro includes the Muslims who didn’t want to use Muslim as their identity and accepted the Spanish name Moros as their identity, the Lumads and Christians in the affected territory.

      The BBL is more democratic than the Constitution.

      Whereas in the Republic of the Pilipins the Muslims can never elect a Senator or President, in the proposed all-inclusive Moro entity, a landed and moneyed Christian Moro Parliamentarian can easily be elected as Chief Minister because he is not elected directly by the people. He just have to buy the members of the Parliament.

      And yes, the Muslims valid grievances against the government.

      Assallam Wallaikhom Wa Rahmatullah (Peace)…

    5. I say No to BANGSAMORO BASIC LAW (BBL) because of the following reasons:

      1. I highly doubt the sincerity of the MILF and it’s capacity to control other rebels or factions such as BIFF, MNLF, Abu sayaf, PAG (Private Armed Group), etc.

      2. Incompetence of our President (PNoy) who merely buys time (until his term end) and make false promises in order to avoid conflicts in Mindanao. Also, PNoy sole motivation is get international recognition such as:
      a. NOBEL PEACE award
      b. 5 + 1million reward for Marwan & Usman respectively.

      3. Incompetence of Government Peace Negotiator (Deles & Ferrer) both of whom did not really represented and protected the interest of Philippines Government but obviously sided with MILF. Women as Peace Negotiator will likely have poor understanding of Peace & Security, warfare, terrorism, threats and other conflict.

      4. It is not possible to negotiate with Savages (uneducated, wild) with high power arms.

      5. Government must first confiscate all illegal/unregistered arms or voluntarily surrendered rebels/armed groups.

      6. Our Government must FEED the People and provide EMPLOYMENT & good EDUCATION, build more MOSQUE & SCHOOLS, encourage more sports activity (soccer), etc.

      5. Promote a culture of TOLERANCE & RESPECT amongst Christians and our Muslim brothers.


    6. For you mindanaoan (if indeed you are mindanaoan), then your forebears must have been pirates also before the conquestadores sashayed into our shores, as you believe so. The problem is we rely on Western historians, like Loyre, who have the propensity to stigmatize Muslims because they develop antipathy against Muslims owing to the European imperialistic adventures. We, Muslims, have our own records of history whose purity has been preserved.

    7. I agree with Al Romero. Let us nurture peaceful co-existence. War nor heated argument does not do us any good. For those who harbor enmity against the other (Christians against Muslims or vice-versa), you are just squandering your energy. When you travel to other countries, like Malaysia, Hongkong, Macau, etc., you cannot help pitying Filipina prostitutes who were looked down upon by the host countries. When I was in Malaysia, I had a co-boarder Filipina who was beaten by her Chinese husband. There was nothing but my being a Filipino that urged me to confront the Chinese and warn him not to do it again or he would face me the next time around. That despite our landlady’s warning for me not to step in. It is my own conviction that BBL would pave the way for a federated government which the Manila oligarchs loathe to unfold.

    8. vagoneto rieles on

      In High School Science subjects, we learned about asexual reproduction among ‘low life’ animals like the amoeba and other single-celled organisms. No sex is involved in the process..just cell division. One cell becomes two; two becomes four, etc. Little did we know that this process is also applicable to the Muslim organizations (not organisms), where MNLF gives birth to MILF; MILF to Bangsamoro; Bangsamoro to BIFF; BIFF to , JIM, etc. On a more serious note, however, the driver of these escalating reproductions is this very administration, particularly, President Aquino, his “peace ladies”, and the leadership of the House and the Senate. They have made it irresistible, through ‘land-give-aways’, and subsidies that run into the billions, for these ‘abreviation-organizations’ to organize, make trouble intermittently, and demand attention. Many citizens and netizens would now want to know..”will there be an end to this blackmail”? Do we have the guts to scrap the BBL.

    9. just as there never was a filipino in history. filipino is just an invention to replace the spanish word for “indios” in honor of the colonizers king named king philip II.

    10. Abdil Ampatua on

      I am 66 yrs old and a muslim. I have grown-up reading books in elementary that refers to me and my community as moros. In college in Manila, some classmates called me moro from mindanao. I came from a town where more than 300 of our ancestors who stood against the occupying american forces in 1912 were massacred. History has it that only seven of our male ancestors survived. Pages of narration in the National and American libraries refer to my ancestors as Moros. What is in a name, if we can attain national reconciliation through it. Let us not dig the past for it will unveil untreated wounds. The MILF and the Government has signed a document for peace, unity and progress never done before. Let us go on with it tackle it with trust.

      • Personally, your explanation bodes well of faith and trust. Unfortunately, 44 SAF men in line of duty died in a “misencounter”. It is hard to swallow the explanations of even the GPh panel, and even moreso with the position of Iqbal and Murad and the MILF after the massacre. This is no longer history we are speaking of but reality which only recently happened. While the MILF is yet to be given the BBL, its position and attitude is beyond the acceptable customs of civilized nations. And instead of re-building confidence and good faith, the MILF has an incredible story not even children would believe. At its current form the BBL is already a trash, and only by bribery and corruption of the lawmakers would the BBL would pass congress. But I, as a Filipino peacemaker, will ensure that I will form a chain with the millions of majority Filipinos to keep that BBL trashed out and run after the terrorists and the MILF – whatever you want to call them. Assalama laykum!

      • BBL can’t be for peace and unity. The MILF is a rebel group not the representative of Mindanao. And Pres. Aquino is not authorized to represent the government to forge this deceptive peace with a rebel group. BBL signals the dismemberment of the Republic of the Philippines in favor of one rebel faction, where is the “unity”???

      • Peace must come first with sincerity and cooperation of both parties. The Philippine government should not be in a hurry for this. MILF is not representing the whole Mindanao rather they are only thugs or band of criminals we have in our society. All must adhere to the duly constituted government of the Republic. Any armed conflict who will destroy the peace and order of our country will be destroyed once and for all. The government should be as strong as a rock in dealing with this criminals who are trying to take advantage of the incompetence and gullibility of our President and his men in Malacanang. Any wrong move by the government will ignite anger from the majority of the people.

    11. Filomena Salve on

      Can’t even imagine how the president can endorse for approval a law that is defective starting from the title itself. Bangsamoro (muslim nation) basic law (just another word for constitution). A nation within a nation. Where does that leave the non-muslims in these territories? Well the guns will take care in silencing them to submission.

      Wonder what role the government negotiators played in the drafting of this law… merely editors to check for spelling errors and grammar? And did Pnoy even read them? Well after all it is more than a hundred pages, too busy his assistants can very well skim through it. Then it goes to Congress, pdaf will take care of it. After all Abad is always by Pnoy’s side in his meetings better be in his good books. Ooops damn that mamasapano ‘misencounter’ do not even call it massacre okay

    12. Muslim separatists take pride in the idea that they were never conquered by the Spaniards and the Americans. They do not claim to be called Filipinos because the term represents people who are subdued and colonized by the Spaniards.

      But if they open their eyes, they will see clearly how they were conquered, first by the Americans by establishing their political systems up to the remote areas of the Moroland, and second by the Filipinos and Moro leaders themselves who were entrusted by this system when the Americans left. Thus there are Governors, Mayors, and Barangay Captains in every places.

      Yes, the constitution respects the Moro their right to self determination that is why there’s ARMM similar to the Indigenous People’s IPRA. Yes it is a work in progress. And yes, lets work hand in hand for the rights of Moro and IPs. But lets start with TRUTH, that the Moroland has been conquered by the Americans and the Filipinos (whom the mock and with a rich history of Spanish, American, and Japanese resistance).

    13. As I peered into our own history–not influenced by Western perspective–the alleged Moro piratic intrusion into the Visayan islands including Mindoro and Kalamianis island was a retaliatory response to the Christianised natives when they rode onto the invasive bandwagon of the Spanish conquestadores in their relentless pressure to rein in the Moros. This conviction was corroborated by historian James Warren when he said that such piratic intrusions took place in 1832 at which time the conquestadores intrusion was raging.

      • Your conviction notwithstanding, piratical raids and slavery predated the Spanish. [Loyre 1991: 66-67]

    14. We can debate about the origin or history of the term but will that provide the jobs and employment that is what those people need now? What is to be done is to start developing ports, highways, airports and start exploration of oil and gas in the area. Then, they can ask Iqbal how he can raise the funds to start these projects? Otherwise, they should stop talking with him.

    15. There is no Bangsamoro in much the same way that there was no Filipino as a people or Pilipino as a dialect until Spain colonized the lands discovered by Magellan he initially named Archipelago de San Lazaro and eventually called Las Islas Filipinas in honor of the Spanish king Felipe II (is my history correct?); thus, Philippines. We might as well allow the creation of several nations within the country such as Banwa Ilonggo, Nasod Bisaya, Bansang Tagalog, Republic of Bohol, Barangay Ginebra, Gatas Republic, atbp.

    16. lleuxquiocho on

      with all due respect to our Muslim brothers and sisters, the current Malicanyang (deliberately misspelled) tenant is coining that Bangsamoro term… BangsaMORON would it be aptly called!!!

    17. vagoneto rieles on

      Islam was first preached in the Philippines in 1380 by traders from the Persian Gulf. This was followed by preachers of a devout sect of Islam from Sumatra in 1390. Islam, arguably, was the first organized religion to reach Philippine shores..although Christendom predates it by some 630 years worldwide. The first religious place of worship in the country was a mosque in Simunul, in the Tawi Tawi archipelago..built before 1400.
      When Miguel Lopez de Legazpi arrived in Manila in 1571, (after Cebu and Panay in 1565), he was greeted by Rajas Sulayman, Matanda and Lakan Dula, (Muslims all). The cordiality ended and hostilities began when Legazpi tried to make Manila his..and Spain’s..settlement, and won. (Legazpi sailed to Cebu from Mexico in 1565, forty-four years after Magellan’s trip of discovery..and death in 1521.) These are indisputable facts of history that we can not quibble about. But what has these facts got to do with the realities of the 21st century..where there are only 5million Muslims, (who prefer not to be called Filipino) among 100million Filipinos? History is just a record of what has been… what was fact then. It is good to know; but, it can not be the basis of policy that must address today’s reality.

    18. the author said, “Neither “bangsa” nor “moro” is a word in any of the languages of the 13 Muslim and 18 non-Muslim cultural minorities that the BBL law will classify as “Bangsamoro People. ”…
      Well actually you need to research. Bangsa is a Maranao word.
      Btw, I would want to know how you differentiate Indio from Filipino and Filipino and Indio.

    19. Peace in Mindanao is illusive because people are discriminating each other. The best solution is to enforce one Filipino policy regardless of faith with equal protection and privelege by the government.To ensure peace is to enforce the full force of the law. Encourage people to disarm, give all the opportunity to learn and have education. Qualified citizens to run or administer communities, town, cities. Government should find ways to make all citizens comfortable, assurance of life by giving or guiding them in how to earn a living. To make it short, the Philippine government should find ways to give people enjoyment of their temporary life. Eraze greediness, stop corruption, help one another is the program until the end of individual time. Cooperations, understanding and comfort of every citizen is the attainment of peace as contentment will prevail. While we breath we hope.

      • Any grouping, associations, organizations or a community there’s always problem because it is part of the design by the creator that humans should learn by themselves what is right and what is wrong. Most people enjoys life by being greedy, abusive, and all others that is against the right procedure of co-existence. What is forbidden in life is always the enjoyment. Only GOD knows everything. To live in the Philippines, no need Bangsamoro, MILF, MNLF, BIFF or even membership of political parties. Living the right way insures contentment and happiness.Good Luck.

      • The whole Philippines must become a state of the US of America under the US Constitution..that’s the real solution to the insurgency or other types of militant rebels..NO Bangsamoro or whatever name of separatist will exist..the wole Philippines wil be under a Governor like Hawaii…all Filipinos, muslims, maranaos, tausogs, etc. will be citizens of the US…All corrupt Politicians will disapear and PROGRESS will evolve..PROBLEM SOLVED!!!

    20. The creation of Bangsa-Moro on its name intentionally wanted to revise history and facts to build up that myth: “Bangsamoro, a Nation Under Endless Tyranny,” written by one Salah Jubair. Who is Jubair? – Mohagher Iqbal, head of the MILF’s negotiating panel and reputedly a member of the five-man Jihad Executive Committee….

      The executive officers including negotiating panel both MILF and of Phil government trying to deceive Filipinos with the true intentions and purpose of BBL.These megalomaniac people eager to absorb absolute power over the Muslim community in Mindanao.

      • The creation of Bangsa-Moro on its name intentionally is not a revise history, it is history based on truth, justice and fair history from written documents……that the fact…. and for your information its not a myth…. the TARSILA is a written history/document kept by the SULU & MAGUINDANAO SULTAN…… The people of the island during the coming of SPANIARDS w/c the used were 1. MORO and 2.INDIO…. during the arrival of the whitemen the MORO NATION WERE EXIXSTED LIKE THE MAGUINDANAO SULTANATE AND THE SULU SULTANATE and we have a sovereignty, and proud to say they NEVER conquered us… the 2nd people called by the whitemen was INDIO meaning SLAVE later it became PILIPINO. inshort INDIO, SLAVE AND PILIPINO is the same MEANING…..

      • Kungan Datu, stop imagining things. Moro and Indio are terms which are both derogatory and of which the use is misplaced. Moro for Moor, which you are not, and Indio for Indians which non moros are not. In fact, Indio was used for the indigenous peoples of South America and colonies of Portugal and Spain in South East Asia. Both words are not supposed to be derogatory in actual meaning, but white racism eventually devolved these words to become derogatory.


      Iranun is not a tribe of any nation of the world. It is a nation with defined territory and sphere of influenced, political structure/system, socio-economic, educational system, culture, belief and tradition, and other aspects. It was one of the ancient civilized nations in the world. Its existence and civilization is contemporary with Sri Vishaya and Madjapahit Empires. It was a nation sprang from a Karingke-Karibang line of descent. Karibang and Kareingke were analogous with aetas of Luzon. During the Fall of Sri Vishaya Empire many of the people either family or political group migrated going north until such time that they reached and landed in the present Iranun Bay (Illana Bay), the center of the primitive people/ native inhabitants. This group of migrants was identified in the tarsila as Taw sa Guiwa ( English version people of Java). They entered into a social relationship with the Karingke-Karibang people. Intermerriages were established between the natives and the Javans. Out of this social process Iranun as a nation sprang. They established their political system KINGDOMSHIP patterned from Sri Vishaya Political System. The first ruler was Rajah Urannguwan. This system of government (Kingdomship) last until reign of Rajah Raut Buisan, the father of Sultan Kudarat.

      This nation was destroyed and ruined by colonization. The colonizers like Spain and United States made a conquest and invasion to expand their territory and sovereignty and introduced their respective system and way of life. They used force and political strategies to destroy and dominate the natives. The colonization of the western nations fragmented and divide the Iranun nation into tribe. Unlike other foreign nations like China, India, and Arabs. They came not for conquest and invasion but for trade, commerce, education, and religion(spiritual) aspects. They helped the natives. The civilization of the natives was improved and strengthened due to the socio-political relationships with China,India and Arab.

      The name of the state was Uranen Kingdom, its people was Iranun. The ancient Uranen state is the Mindanao of the present time. The terrotiry of the Kingdom stretched from Sibugay Peninsula to Tagalook Gulf with all in-lands areas, except Agusan and Surigao provinces. Its sphere of influenced reached as far as the present areas of Zamboanga and Misamis Provinces. The seat of government and center of civilization was in Tbok now a barangay of Malabang, Lanao sel Sur. Therefore the civilization in the Island started from the coastal area of the Iranun Bay (Illana Bay). Iranun tarsila named, called, and identified it as Biwang-Kawanan Tinday A Batal O Pagilidan (literarily translated as Left and Right Huge Coastal Principalities), in political interpretation say traditional name is translated as Kingdom of the Sea Coast, which refer to Uranen Kingdom, the official name.

      • sonny dela cruz on

        Thanks for the education. The question is, are you a filipino? Do you respect and embrace the Philippine constitution or you want to break away and form your own BangsaMoro.

      • Can we just be one single race and one single people and call ourselves us “Filipino”. Our country is already poor, and yet our cultural, ethnic, religious, political divisions makes us more poorer. Regardless of what the history says, we have already establshed the “Filipino” identity, and I can find anything wrong with being a Filipino. Whether we are Ilocanos, Tagalogs, Cebuano, Pampangueno, Maguindanaon, Bangsamoro, etc. , or whether we are Muslims or Christians we are one nation and one Filipino. Our divisions promotes war and misunderstanding and the present and future situtaion of our country,, economy, and people …including our children are affected. We should focus on how to further our country and make it livable and enjoyable. Life is to short on all these bickerings, and we should all work together to change the political landscape of corruption which is the main root cause of our country’s poverty. Filipinos should join together to create more jobs and opportunities and not more divisions.

      • The point of the author is : There were Sulu, Maguindanao, Iranun,, Buayan kingdoms (or whatever you call them), but there never was a unified area that you can call by a single name. The need for a unifying identity necessitated the invention of the term “Moro Nation”. The author is correct, there never was a Bangsamoro. If you want something new, play it forward, don’t change the past.

    22. There is no ‘Bangsamoro,’ never was, then how about the INDIO/SLAVE/FILIPINO?

    23. remulla aguilar on

      Issue of Sabah should not be connected with the BBL because it is an issue between the Sulatanate of Sulu if ever there was an agreement between them and Malaysia. Sabah does not belong to the Philippines by any law because it was not part of territories ceded by the Spanish to the Americans. A personal property of a citizen of a certain is not automatically a property of government where he is a citizen..

      • You are right but most of netizens say that by approving BBL we surrender our claim to SAbah. BUt wait, not ALL Filipino and not even the govt can claim Sabah. Only the Sultanate of SUlu. Inshort ang daming nagmamarunong na netizen na Pilipino na wala naman talagang alam sa History lalo na ng Moro.

      very simple lang ang sagot tungkol sa BBL issue na ito

      Vladimir Putin’s speech – SHORTEST SPEECH EVER.
      On August 04, 2013, Vladimir Putin, the Russian president, addressed the Duma, (Russian Parliament), and gave a speech about the tensions with minorities in Russia:
      In Russia, live like Russians. Any minority, from anywhere, if it wants to live in Russia, to work and eat in Russia, it should speak Russian, and should respect the Russian laws. If they prefer Sharia Law, and live the life of Muslim’s then we advise them to go to those places where that’s the state law.
      Russia does not need Muslim minorities. Minorities need Russia, and we will not grant them special privileges, or try to change our laws to fit their desires, no matter how loud they yell ‘discrimination’. We will not tolerate disrespect of our Russian culture. We better learn from the suicides of America, England, Holland and France, if we are to survive as a nation. The Muslims are taking over those countries and they will not take over Russia. The Russian customs and traditions are not compatible with the lack of culture or the primitive ways of Sharia Law and Muslims.
      When this honorable legislative body thinks of creating new laws, it should have in mind the Russian national interest first, observing that the Muslims Minorities Are Not Russians.

      • Do not compare the “Bangsa Moros” to Russians. Spaniards were not able to subdue us, nor the Americans were, nor the Japanese whose mass graves can still be found in our areas, let alone Russians. Our people fought with “bolos”, spears, arrows and “kris” against the spaniards, and the mighty Japanese and Americans, but they left frustrated. Russians were not able also to subdue the people of Afghanistan. Not even the the Manila government can conquer our people, they may kill our people but they cannot wipeout us from the Map of the world.

      • Bantogun. You were defeated by the Americans. In fact, the Moros willingly submitted themselves to the Americans, right after the Yanks bombed you to smithereens, and then engaged you in a lopsided close quarters combat, where hundreds of you were slaughtered with many running away, and the most minimum of casualties for the Yanks. You are not Afghansm, you are Moros who run away when your enemies are as vicious or more vicious than you. Technically speaking, youre nothing more than bullies, who would run pag “pinatulan” kayo.

        Also, we are not interested in wiping you out from the world. Only muslim extremists are interested in wiping people out who do not subscribe to the same religious ideology. That is why we are having a hard time with you. We have a concept called human rights, we value human life, better than your culture does.

        Before you also start accusing us of abuses, may I also remind you of Moro raids into the Visayas and Luzon to pillage and enslave Christian captives minding their own business, way before anyone from Luzon or Visayas decided to migrate to Mindanao. Also, the Lumads who got their before your Moro ancestors, aren’t too fond of you either.

      • The Americans were being polite in labeling you as class A fighters. Filipinos from Luzon and the Visayas were also labeled as class A fighters, not just by the Americans, but also by the British who came here. Admittedly though, we share the same culture of having poor leaders, and the lousy tendency of following poor leaders. However, Gurkhas you are not. You are basically bullies, who when faced with an equally violent and vicious enemy, run away. Remember, Hashim Salamat swore that many soldiers will die if they tried to take Camp Abu Bakr. We went into Camp Abu Bakr and you all just ran away, with Hashim running all the way to Malaysia. Like I said, Gurkhas and samurai you are not. Moros being violent yes, brave? Probably as brave as any other individual in any part of the world, nothing exceptional though. It’s a myth that you love to relish. That is why you haven’t won since the times of Nur Misuari.

    25. Bangsa-Malaysia is the word invented by Dr. Mahatir to unite Malaysia. It is now being used to conquer the parts of Mindanao to establish themselves and later declaring independence and allegiance to Malaysia.

      Tun Dr. Mahathir and the notion of ‘Bangsa Malaysia’



        amazing it is true, tanx for your education KUNGAN DATU…Actually the word BANGSA is an IRANUN word meaning LINAGE, Royalty and Nation… example BANGSA IRANUN meaning IRANUN NATION.

    26. Bert Tiglao, I highly appreciate your well-written, erudite, wide-ranging article. It covers a wide latitude of highly informative and educational subjects. I am from Mindanalo, and the natives of Mindanao call themselves – Magindanaoans, Tausugs. Kalagans, and so on and so forth. The Muslims never call themselves Bangsamoro. The term is a misnomer, a myth. I appreciate your literary efforts to educate the reading public. It seems the public demand for PNoy to step down has slowly dissipated into thin air. It is like “ningas cogon” – easy burn, easy go. If this is the behavior of Filipinos, we better wait until the terms of ABnoy ends in 2016. I am disappointed.

      • am from Mindanao particularly from Lanao. Collectively, the Muslim natives who fought the Spaniards were called Moro by the Spaniards. Blame the Spaniards!
        Btw, thus natives who converted to Christianity were called Indios.

    27. This is because we have a “moron” of a president… how much more moronic can we get as a Filipino Nation. Other nations leaders stand firm in stating: “If muslims want to live in peace in our country, they are most welcome to assimilate and live peacefully under our laws & culture. However, our country will not change or make any laws to accommodate religious & cultural beliefs”. Isn’t this common sense; how much simpler can it be? It only begins to complicate itself when the welcome is abused and bastardized by a few.

      Let’s pray for unity and peace for everyone under one nation, one republic, one constitution, one flag: a Filipino!

      • I am from Mindanao and what I know is that before the coming of the Spaniards, Japanese and Americans the 13 Muslim tribes in Mindanao did not know the word “Moro”. The word “bangsa” was already a native word to mean “clan” or “family liage”. We do not know if we borrowed it from Malaysia or Malaysia borrowed it from us. When Spaniards came to our land they called us “Moros”. We do not know what they mean about the word ‘Moro”. Whether it was a warrior? Or because of the Moro people they have fought backhome who are of the same faith? Or because we were their enemies and branded us the word “Moros” which connotes bad meaning. They should have translated the word to us. The problem was when the Muslims revolted in Mindanao, there was no available word or phrase to describe the 13 tribes aside from the word Muslims which is too generic. There was no magic phrase to rally the natives of Mindanao (excluding settlers) to support the revolution. The reason may be why was it used in MNLF or MILF is that, the Spaniards called us Moro, their fierce enemy who they did not conquer, Americans called us Moros who they did not subdue, hence some accepted it as it is.

    28. Bangsamoro is a mafia organization with its members the MILF,BIFF and Abu Sayyaf and Malaysia as their Godfather.When we gain our independence from the american their no such things as autonomous region,abolish autonomous regions and scrap the BBL waste of time on this piece of garbage.Use that P75 billions and invest in our AFP and PNP.Very good article Mr.Tiglao.

    29. The government have long been catering to the demands of the religion-based ideologues seeking secession. “Bangsamoro” is one of the tales they sold to the government which took it hook, line, and sinker. The government has been to focused at them that they have been made to believe that catering to their (the ideologues) demands would mean peace. But the truth is that if by some magic ALL the secessionist groups and their corresponding ideologues disappear, the lawless parts of Mindanao would STILL be very dangerous places. Bands of armed groups would still create opportunities to use their guns to “earn” a living.

      The government needs to stop being too engrossed with the ideologues and their political demands and instead find ways to effectively and competently GOVERN and impose RULE of LAW. That would be hard to do if the almost feudal setup characterized by clans contesting for government money and armaments is not dismantled.

      Treaties like BBL make certain clans powerful. Our taxes are funneled to officials who have autonomous control. Among those who grew powerful under ARMM is the Ampatuan clan. Among the clans poised to benefit from BBL is the Mangudadatu clan – the darlings after the Maguindanao massacre. If government is weak and there is no Rule of Law, then feudal set up remains… then clans will compete… then guns guns are necessary… then armed groups will continue to be prevalent. The government simply needs to stope being ABSENT to have peace. (And stop looking at the ideologues!!!)

    30. A point I have raised since 2007, part of a memorandum I sent to some senatorial candidates. Likewise formed part of the Kapatiran Party’s position on how to address the issues of peace in Mindanao both in 2010 and 2013 elections. Recently, some politicians and commentators have shared the same sentiment. The failure is not in giving the Muslims autonomy but on insisting that they can all be part of a single political subdivision or a regional government. There was never one indeed in the past and there will never be one in the future. They are simply too different from each other outside of their Muslim faith.

    31. An interesting article. Language is dynamic and is continually changing with the times. New terms and words are being coined eventually losing the meanings of their parent words and gaining a new one. Somewhat off topic, I would like to share the draft copy of the BBL for everyone’s scrutiny. By studying the draft people will be better equipped in giving educated comments on the topic. Copy and paste this link in your browser. http://www.gov.ph/2014/09/10/document-the-draft-bangsamoro-basic-law/

    32. Norodin Lucman on

      The discourse on Moro history is as complex as the origins of 1899 Filipino nationalism. The heroes of Katagalugan revolution never called themselves Filipinos. Ironically, there is no such thing as Filipino nationalism, only versions. But there is a Moro Caliphate that ruled parts of Northern Africa and Iberia peninsula for hundreds of years.
      In May 711 A.D., a Moro Berber General Tariq bin Ziyad, at the head of 5,000 warriors, landed at the Rock of Gibraltar (Jeb el Tariq, the mountain of Tariq) at the request of the Governor of Ceuta whose daughter was raped by a Visigoth nobleman. The Moros (Moors, Moriscoes) conquered Spain after months of bloody campaign. On July 9, 711, Moro Generals Tariq and Nusair with a combined force of 10,000 Moro warriors destroyed the Visigoth army of King Roderick at the mouth of river Barbate. King Roderick was drowned as he fled from the battlefield.(Hilgemann) The Moors ruled the Iberian peninsula (Spain and Portugal, parts of Pyrenees) for more than 700 years.
      The 300-year Moro-Spanish war was actually a continuation of wars that started in Cordoba (Spain) and it did not end until 1898 when Spain left the archipelago. After the fall of Rajah Soliman of Tondo in the 16th century, Visayas and parts of Mindanao Caraga, Saranggani, Davao- Dabao and Zamboanga (Sampongan, Samboangan, Jabonga) were fought over by conquistadores and Moro warriors in bloody sea and land battles.
      The following year, in 1568, King Philip II ordered Governor and Captain-General Miguel Lopez de Legazpi to enslave the Moros who will go against the Spanish evangelizers: Miguel Lopez de Legazpi, my Governor and Captain-General of the Islands of the West:
      “I have received your two letters dated June 15 and twenty-three of the past year one thousand five hundred and sixty-seven, and I have taken note of the detailed account which you gave of the events of your expedition, and of what you have done in it and it is what has been expected from your loyalty and goodness. We have been petitioned in your name, that in consideration of the fact that there are islands inhabited by Moros in that land, and that they come to trade and traffic, thus hindering the preaching of the holy gospel, and disturbing you, we grant you permission to enslave such Moros and seize their possessions. You must take note that if such Moros are Moros by birth and nation and come for the purpose of spreading their cursed mahometan worship, or to make war on you or on the Indians (Indios) subject to us and to our royal service, then you can enslave them. But you shall under no consideration whatever enslave those who were Indians who may have adopted the worship of Mahomet, but you shall endeavor to convert them and persuade them to accept our holy Catholic faith by good and legitimate means. King Philip, Escorial, November 16,1568.
      This message rings true up to this moment in our collective consciousness. Filipino nationalism is a historical anomaly that continue to play out the legacy of a long gone era of the Visigoths.
      In 1570 Martin de Goiti with two frigates and 100 Spanish and 600 Visayan soldiers entered Manila Bay. On May 8, 1570, battles with local Chieftain Raja Solayman, who rejected their presence, ensued. Juan de Salcedo destroyed the Moro forts in Ilin and Lubang before capturing Mamburao (Mindoro) from Moro warriors. The Spaniards called the natives Moros, owing to their allegiance to Islam which ruled the Iberian peninsula for 700 years. Juan de Salcedo also attacked a Batangas cotta in Balayan using caracoas. Historically, the term Moro was used by the Basques to define the natives of Luzon as enemies of Imperial Spain. This conflict is probably the longest running political and military conflict in the history of East Asia. Bangsamoro is a national identity that conjures memories of our glorious past.
      Today, Filipino soldiers are called soranga sa agama, enemies of the faith or, for short, soranga – opposition. They are, at times, referred to as mga atasi talumpa, “those long boots” or mrprpng, meaning tall enemies usually associated with Honor Guards. Islamic guerilla fighters simply call them mga gadong- green fatigues. Mranaos call northern traitors mga kolompowag, kantianos who served foreigners against their own people. Likewise, the word “Moro” could be defined by Filipinos in many ways: a derogatory word for “heathen,” uncouth or simply, a murderous pirate. Soldiers call Muslims “mga moklo.” These dog-tags are important to combatants. It defines a nation at war
      Bangsamoro is a unifying factor that identify the natives of Mindanao before the influx of settlers from Luzon and Visayas. Part of this realm is the Iranaon identity. Iranaon or Iranun means people from a body of water, mala-ig (Big Water) meaning the Lake Region, Ranao, and the great rivers, lakes and marshlands of Liguasan and Central Mindanao. Our culture, poems, literature, belief in Islam and our ancestors are always tied to the mystery of the mountains, forests, lakes and rivers. Before the Spanish conquistadores came to our shores, Malay East Asia was ruled at different times by Simbaans (Simbahan, Lord, Tag:Church), Timuays, Domatus (tribal chieftains) and later Iranon warrior-Sultans, particularly successions of Sultans of Maguindanao. Ranao was part of the confederation of Sultanates (Tagoloan, Kabuntalan and Buayaan) under the Sultanate of Maguindanao (Mindanao). It was an Iranon Empire ruled by Sultan Dipertuan Kudarat that stretched from the tip of Surigao, North and Central Mindanao, Sultanate of Dabao (Davao) to Ternate in Celebes islands and Sabah (North Borneo) in the 16th and 17th century. Armed encounters between the Spaniards and Iranons, who are experienced sailors and warriors, backed by Borneans and Ternatans, confirm the existence of such an empire. (Dery)
      Colonialism has a way of distorting history and enshrine men and women who preached it, later to be condemned by the same history long after the events took place. The ancient media is no different from today’s Western media that marvels at the shock-and-awe of super weapons dropped on hapless people who has the misfortune of sitting on some precious resource that is embedded 100 feet below or more. The age of innocence had passed not because of collective amnesia but because history cannot forget.

      • Raymart Diaz on

        This myth that is being propagated that the Philippine Islands was Islamic continues to be peddled like rotten fish. It was an aggrupation of tribes, the so called Islamic Philippines. The claim that even Manila was under Islam is a myth. Yes, the King was Islamic but what kind of a Muslim? They were not from Luzon. That is why the natives from Luzon never supported him against the Spaniards.The natives from Luzon and the Visayas were victims of these Islamic Slave Raiders and Slave Traders from the south. If ever, they were like the Barbary Pirates. An economy based on the slave trade. Also, there was never any archeological proof that there were mosques in Manila, proof that Islam never really took root in Manila.This Bangsamoro is an attempt to resurrect a system of slave trading and slave raiding.

    33. Commander James on

      The Philippines Military has so much weapons and men but no tactic.
      SWAT = Sobra sa Weapons Walang Tactic).

      To eradicate all rebels and terrorists (whether Communists, Muslims or Otherwise).
      Philippine Military must employ “Blitzkrieg”.

      (“Speed, and still more speed, and always speed was the secret……..and that demanded audacity, more audacity and always audacity.”
      Major General Fuller)

    34. Commander James on

      (President Aquino and his negotiators are uninformed, stupid and gullible
      in view of Aquino’s “Comprehensive Agreement on Bangsamoro”
      presented as BBL in Congress),

      (The ALL the incumbent Philippine Senators and members of Congress are most
      uninformed, the most stupid, the most gullible, and the most “pinaka tanga, mga
      walang utak at saka mga duwag” Filipinos for even including the BBL in the
      agenda of the current Legislative Branch of Government.)

      The Supreme Court can deny leave to hear a petition or legal issue presented to it, there is no absolute no reason why Congress and Senate cannot deny, the BBL (legislation as a whole) , from being deliberated and included in its agenda as having more priority than other pending important proposed legislations.

      Meanwhile, the HIGHLY FUNDED and LARGE AND HUGE PHILIPPINE MILITARY (AFP + PNP ) must continue and sustain its (bliskjriegwiping out all terrorism, lawless gangs, insurgents and rebels (communists or otherwise) in the whole Philippine Territory.

      Philippine Military must use innovative military technique “Blitzkrieg” which means “lightning war”. It was an first used by the Germans in World War Two and was a tactic based on speed and surprise.

      “Blitzkrieg” was used to devastating effect in the first years of World War II
      and quickly pushed the British and French armies to Dunkrik.

      German Army’s “Blitzkrieg” also devastated Russian forces in June 1941.

    35. This country does not lack traitors. Traitors during the Spanish Time, during the Japanese time, during peace time and now during this time. And look whose family it was. We should break ties with Malaysia for openly admitting its decitful assistance to Muslim insurgencies in Mindanao. Its obvious enough that this insurgencies emanate from our claim to Sabah.

    36. The term Bangsamoro Basic Law is already so divisive that it cannot be enacted. This document is clearly dictated by the MILF and given to Aquino as a take it or we fight ultimatum. Kill the BBL and everything dealing with the MILF. Give peace a chance by banning all weapons larger than a pistol and disbanding all private armies. Then enforce the law. Peace will arrive when law and order is restored.

    37. Based on the facts from this column, Aquino and his peace negotiators are committing treason already by endorsing the BBL sponsored by the Malaysian government. This government is helping Malaysia to get its prime goal of exploiting the Maguindanao Region of its natural resources and not to mention the abandoned claim to Sabah in exchange of a legacy. The MILF leaders will be very happy holding the billions of money from the taxes coming from Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao in the guise of pork barrel of Aquino and next Administration yearly given to the Bangsamoro Entitiy including the royalties from Malaysia government as payment for exploring their natural resources. Baka hindi lang legacy ang makukuha ni Noynoy pati na siguro yung mga balato galing sa Malaysia.

    38. It’s time for our leaders to think and heed of what is being driven out here in giving serious thought on this BBL proposal. If not seriously studies could be the dome of our beloved LUZVIMINDA and create a very serious threat to the cause of peace. Even before the passage of this BBL, the assassinations of our SAF as they enter a territory already assumed to be their nation should be enough wake-up call. This BBL is appears to be more of a threat rather than a cause for peace.

    39. vagoneto rieles on

      The BBL is not, as yet, a law. It’s draft is still being discussed in Congress; it has yet to pass the Supreme Court’s scrutiny, and be approved in a plebiscite. But..already, the MILF is behaving like the ”state-within-a-state” described in the draft. It was mentioned earlier that..”the draft is good enough for the MILF, MNLF, BANGSAMORO, BIFF, etc, to be considered a written and enforceable document. It is written. Inshal’lah.” They have just proved..at the cost of some 67 lives.. that it is reason enough to take up arms to defend; and, this is only the beginning. When will our naive, benighted and feckless negotiators, (and leaders) learn this?

      • This BBL will also cost the national coffers 75 Billion pesos. I don’t know if this is an annual appropriation or not, but it is a lot. I hope this is not similar to DAP where legislators will also profit.

    40. Your article is very enlightening and educational.The term Bansa means Country and nothings else more. Whenever I hear Bansa from the muslims, it means secession, another country or the prelude to joining the Malaysians. Another part of a country joining another existing state is a secessionist movement called irrendentist. The present administration is a big fool. We have already ARRM which needs refinement of any of its weakness(es). The Malaysians is playing the Aquino administration as the big TANGA. Ninoy sparked the southern insurgency by exposing the Jabidah operation which is a national security concern into a political circus. Cory resurrected the LAOS na artista MNLF. Here comes another Aquino, nilalabusab ang ating sambayanan. Oh, DIOS KO!!!

    41. March 2, 2015 at 6:50 am
      BBL will ultimately result in Dismembering the Republic of the Philippines into
      Just Luzon and Visaya, without MINDANAO!
      No, to a special law (BBL) or Contitutonal Amendment that will grant special treatment and status to Maguindanao region just because most residents have different religious beliefs (Muslims/Koran). It is unconstitutional under the “Equal Protection Clause” of the Constitution, which provides that all citizens must have the same basic rights, duties and obligation and equally protected by the Constitution and the laws enacted thereunder. To surrender some governmental powers like police, military, national security, taxation, judicial system, trade and foreign policies to the Maguindanao autonomous region is tantamount to yielding the philippine Sovereignty which will territorially dismember the country for creating a separate and independent State of Islamic Maguindanao! In fact, even without BBL the MILF is already claiming “prior consent and permission” by MILF to all police or military operations in their alleged autonomous area of jurisdiction, like the PNP launch of Marwan and Usman operation to serve arrests warrants. It is ok to coordinate with MILF to prevent friction from the Cessation of Hostilities Agreement but the secrecy of police action need not be coordinated with them as the PNP is a national force that is over and above the MILF forces. In the first place the MILF should not maintain ARMED forces of whatever type as they are not legally so authorized. Further the PNP is there to serve and protect ALL people in the region regardless of religion. We embrace all our MUSLIM brothers not because we are Christians or Catholic but because we are PILIPINOS and they too are! And the Constitution and the National laws (like the Local Government Units under the Local Administrative Law) that apply to us must also apply to them as we are all PILIPINOS! Hence, No Need for Special law (BBL). What is needed is love, harmony and trust to have PEACE!
      The National Governance from President, members of Congress and Judiciary must recognize promote and serve the social, economic and political welfare of the region under the existing Constitution and laws, not by amending the Constitution or Comprehensive autonomous laws for the region.
      The National leadership must continue to maintain a sincere and honest dialogue with MILF or MNLF to pursue the full development of the Mindanao regions economy and its social and religious freedom to attain the elusive peace that has evaded the region for centuries!
      Jun Ada

      • It seems that you JUDGE BBL even without reading the AGREEMENT. Basically not all parts of Mindanao is included in this agreement hence what ARMM consist before is same as what the BBL wanted to pursue with the righteaous leader and governance. I am born from a catholic mother and a muslim father and was raise in a city with both religion shares equality. This agreements doesn’t separate the governance from our constitution hence it will be a sector of a government which goal is to give privileges to our fellow muslim brothers and sisters to be treated equally into society as well as enhance their craft and living in their own respective land. Cultivate their lands for their means, to be given a good education, right to health care and in which FUND to be use for the welfare program.

        We should not judge according to what had happen to SAF… at the long run this are all political arrangement by some greedy politician who have aimed only to suffice themselves.

    42. After all that Islam made the world a chaos of terrorism then this current president approved the desired of muslim community, which are obviously a bunch of terrorists, to make an Islam state in the Philippines? no no no, this president is really very stupid…

    43. Very interesting! I am beginning to understand more and more nagkakalokohan na ubod laki. Kailangang this BBL ay huwag na huwag palulusutin ng Congress of the Philippines. A better document has to be written, better to mean (a) more of the other armed groups, more sultans or datus should agree; (b) constitutional // agrees to all items in current Pilipinas Constitution. The current BBL should be rejected.

    44. The word “MORO” here in Spain is used as an expression sa isang taong walang asal. “Que moro eres” which means in if translated in English…. what a moro you are, that is barbaric, disrespectful, robber, and etc. That is what the “moro” is. You’re right Mr. Tiglao. Moro is like Palestine is only an expression or a call to certain people in connection to there characters and attitudes.

      • Forget not, to call someone “indio” is to say that they are dirty, uneducated, poor, dark-skinned… in short, undesirable. Thus Filipino Christians were undesirable. I think until now they are undesirable as compared to nearby ASEAN countries.

    45. sonny dela cruz on

      The Muslim women of Mindanao should reject the BBL because the BBL has a provision for the shari’ah law. This means that the women will lose their independence and equally under the Philippine constitution. They will be subjected to abused by forcing them to what they wear, not to talk or mingle with non-Muslim people. They will lose all the oppurtunities in life to improve once this BBL becomes law. How the HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISION will do if this Shari’ah law is applied to non-Muslim women. Will the Philippine government will protect these women? What will be the punishment then. It was not discussed in the Comprehensive Agreement. Anyone please advice.

    46. Wala naman pala. IT’S ALL IN THE MIND! Therefore, why are we so engross about it? Forget the BBL. Gimmick lang ni PNoy and his KKK yan para daming he he he. Billions of pesos. Panalo rito si Cojuangcocococoto.