• Why did the military support the Marcos dictatorship?


    First of two parts

    “History is written by the victors,” philosopher and social critic Walter Benjamin famously wrote.

    If the German philosopher is right, we have to posit that in the case of the Marcos’ 13-year one-man rule, the victors—or the vanguard of the victors—were that faction of the elite the Ilocano politician had oppressed, led by the Aquino-Cojuangco, Lopez and Osmena clans. Oops —of course it was People Power: After all, what radical regime change in history by a faction of the ruling class wasn’t undertaken using the people, and purportedly by the people.

    The rough drafts of history are to a great extent written by media. The Lopezes, the epitome of the landlord class Marcos suppressed through martial law, set up immediately their ABS-CBN Network and the Manila Chronicle a few months after Marcos’ fall. Journalists imprisoned and made unemployed for more than a decade by the strongman, their careers and high-standing in society suddenly cut short in 1972, rushed back to the scene with a vengeance and set up what would be the mainstream newspapers today, which now largely form what people think.

    The victors’ narrative is that Marcos knew the 1935 Constitution barred him from a third term so he had to step down from power in 1973. So he threw it to the dustbin and declared martial law to extend his term. This narrative of greed would be bolstered after Marcos fell when, with US help, his Swiss bank accounts, Manhattan properties, and his ownership of shares in Philippine Long Distance Telephone Co. and other firms through dummies were uncovered.

    Marcos purportedly parlayed for US support for martial law his assurances that there would be an orderly withdrawal of US investments after the Laurel-Langley Agreement ended in 1974, with American companies even given legal loopholes to hold on to their lands. Political fox that Marcos was, he knew the US would support his strongman rule, since the American military bases in Subic and Clark were so crucial to the US aggression in Vietnam, at its height at that time.

    However, few remember that, unlike today, strongman rule was the norm in Southeast Asia at that time.  There would even be books in the 1980s  arguing that  dictatorships that put in check  unwieldy even anarchic democracies  were necessary to launch backward Asian countries to Tiger-Economy status: South Korea’s Park Chung-Hee was on his 10th year as dictator by 1972; Taiwan’s Chiang Kai-shek on his 22nd year; and Singapore’s Lee Kuan Yew on his 13th year. After Sukarno was deposed in 1967, the coup’s head Suharto was on to his 5th year.

    The announcement on Sept. 23.

    The announcement on Sept. 23.

    Thailand had martial law – the real one in the classical sense of a country being ruled by the highest-ranking military commander  – from 1963 to 1973 under Field Marshal Thanom Kittikachorn.

    In this age of reason, though, we can spot anomalies in the victors’ narrative to question some of its elements, hopefully to learn from history.

    That most of the elites and their ideologues supported martial law– the Ayalas, Sorianos, Concepcions, the Chinese-Filipino businessmen, local and foreign chambers of commerce, the Opus Dei, the Catholic Church then headed by Cardinal Jaime Sin – is hardly mentioned in the current narratives. A prime example of this was the cover story of the October 1977 issue of Business Journal, the official publication of US companies in the country was headlined: “New Society Provides Positive Atmosphere for Foreign Investors.”

    A symbol of elite support

    One visible symbol of the business elite’s support for Marcos is the Asian Institute of Management, founded in 1968 by Washington SyCip. Funded by the richest tycoons a that time, its glory days were during martial law.  AIM trained an entire corps of military officers in management, not only improving the efficiency of Marcos’ apparatus for rule but giving these officers second lives – in top management positions in the private sector — after their mandatory retirement at 56, making military careers so attractive.

    Opus Dei institutions that became first the Center for Research and Communications and then the University of Asia and the Pacific flourished with huge donations from three bankers who ran the corporations of the Imelda’s brother Kokoy Romualdez.

    The Ayalas’ biggest push outside Makati, which energized it, was its development in 1980s of Ayala Alabang village and commercial complex, the pet project of Enrique Zobel, who had not kept secret his support for Marcos.

    What made that area attractive to the rich, in a dusty place known to be in the general area of the Bilibid National Prison?

    The South Superhighway, now known as SLEX, built in the 1970s which opened up Las Pinas, Laguna, and even Cavite to gated-village developers who are now the country’s richest property tycoons. It was the Ayalas with the Sorianos after all who sold at a premium over market prices in 1983 the country’s premiere industrial corporation to Eduardo Cojuangco, labeled by the anti-Marcos crowd as the dictator’ principal crony.

    The ruling classes always are opportunists. The global economic crisis broke out in 1981 with Latin American countries’ default on its foreign loans. That resulted in our own debt-default in 1983 that triggered the country’s economic holocaust, so terrible that the elites started to dislike Marcos.

    Ninoy Aquino’s assassination alone didn’t trigger the fall of Marcos. It was both that murder, which horrified American liberals, and the economic crisis.

    Instead of the elite’s support for martial law, its biggest puzzle is this: Why did the military and police embrace Marcos’ one-man rule?

    Why did they support him for 13 long years, and abandoned him only in 1986, when it joined the elite who saw the strongman’s fall as the only viable exit out of the steep economic recession, and after the US got worried that Marcos had become the communists “biggest recruiter”?

    The question becomes puzzling when one considers that its officers’ corps, mostly from the lower-middle classes from all over the country, were steeped in democratic principles. This is because most of their leaders graduated from the US West Point Military Academy and the US Naval Academy at Annapolis. Our PMA, up to its inclusion of many liberal arts subjects in its curriculum, was patterned after West Point. This is unlike the officers’ corps in many old European and Asian countries, which emerged from the feudal, warrior elites.

    “Rolex 12” or simply the AFP leadership?

    The victors’ narrative was that a group they dubbed “Rolex 12” planned the imposition of martial law, because allegedly, Marcos gave them in gratitude gold Rolex watches on the eve of the historic event. The narrative’s intent was obviously to depict the group as a shadowy conspiratorial group, which Marcos lavished with luxury watches.

    But according to a December 1974 cable which was among the thousands released in wikileaks.org, then US Ambassador to Manila William Sullivan reported that Marcos gifted the 12 with personally-inscribed Omega watches during a ceremony in 1973. “Marcos chose to decorate the twelve men of defense establishment whom he described as instrumental in deciding and implementing martial law,” Sullivan reported.

    The other members of the group other than Enrile and Marcos’ confidante Eduardo Cojuangco, were AFP Chief of Staff Romeo Espino; Army Chief Rafael Zagala; PC chief Fidel Ramos; Air Force Chief Jose Rancudo; Navy Chief Hilario Ruiz; AFP Intelligence Chief Ignacio Paz; PC Metropolitan Command Alfredo Montoya; PC vice chief Tomas Diaz; National Intelligence Coordinating Authority chief Fabian Ver; and PC Rizal head Romeo Gatan.

    That doesn’t look like a shadowy conspiratorial group, but the formal leadership —  the top brass of the military establishment —  of the country’s armed forces undertook a precision planning for martial law.

    Contrary to the caricature of drunk military men torturing innocent civilians suspected to be going against Marcos, the military that ran martial law was led by officers of the highest integrity.

    Name any respectable, patriotic and freedom-loving former military man you can think of, and he did the duty assigned to him in the operation that imposed martial law on the wee hours of September 23, and all other tasks assigned to him — for more than a decade until February 22, 1986, when the Armed Forces mutinied.

    The head of the military establishment was AFP Chief of Staff Romeo Espino, who became the longest-serving AFP head, from January 1972 up to 1981, when he retired. Espino has remained as one of the most distinguished and most respected generals in AFP history, with not a single corruption or human-rights case brought against him.

    Fidel Ramos, one of the country’s best presidents, headed almost during the entire period of Marcos’ dictatorship, practically half of the country’s armed forces that enforced martial law on the civilian population: the Philippine Constabulary, what’s now our Philippine National Police.

    While Marcos appointed his cousin Fabian Ver as AFP Chief of Staff in 1981, Ramos at least was made AFP Vice Chief of Staff. It wasn’t Marcos who issued the now-infamous Arrest Seizure and Search Orders (ASSO) against his perceived enemies. It was Ramos – I still have mine with his signature. The most effective unit that captured leaders of the opposition and the Communist Party was the PC’s 5th Constabulary Security Unit, my captors.

    Ramos’ counterpart in the Army was Fortunato Abat, commanding general from 1976 to 1981, famous for “saving Mindanao”, as is his book’s title, from the Malaysian-funded Muslim insurgents. He is a respected ex-military man to this day. One of Ramos’ most trusted deputies was the much–respected Renato de Villa who had been considered as the viable presidential candidate to succeed him as President.

    Jose Almonte (Philippine Military Academy, Class of 1956); Eduardo Ermita (1957); Rodolfo Biazon, (‘61); Angelo Reyes (‘66), Reynaldo Wycoco, (’68) Voltaire Gazmin (’68); Hermogenes E. Ebdane (’68); Gregorio Honasan (’71); Panfilo Lacson (‘71); Edgar B. Aglipay (71); Jaime de los Santos (’73); Alexander B. Yano (’76) Delfin Bangit (’78). These are just some of the military men of unquestionable integrity that were in the armed forces in various levels of command that ran martial law. Most if not all of the generals who bravely signed that recent open letter to President Aquino explaining to him theat the Bangsamoro Basic Law will dismember the Republic were with the military that supported Marcos’ one-man rule.

    Marcos had justified martial law on grounds that the Right (by which he mainly meant Aquino, the Lopezes and Osmenas) and the Left (the nascent Maoist Communist Party of the Philippines) had formed an alliance to topple the Republic. He was duty-bound, as his Proclamation 1081 itself put it, to save the Republic.

    The reason why the military supported martial law was that it believed that justification by Marcos.

    They had in fact valid reasons to believe so, which I’ll explain Wednesday. These can be put in two terms: The Jabidah Hoax and the Plaza Miranda Bombing. The author of the first was the Liberal Party and the second the Communist Party.

    We have to learn from real history, and go beyond the victors’ narratives.

    FB: Bobi Tiglao


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    1. no malice, but just curious of the contradiction. why the sudden change? I’m just curious. did you finally realize who is the real patriot or traitor?

      in November 2014 (Marcos: The Great, Tragic Reformer), you wrote: For Sicat to write a history of the dictatorship without one word on the human rights abuses under Marcos means that he is dismissing this darkest side of that era and even ethically supporting the abuses.

      now, September 2015, you wrote: Contrary to the caricature of drunk military men torturing innocent civilians suspected to be going against Marcos, the military that ran martial law was led by officers of the highest integrity.

      I believe that Philippine soldiers and policemen are not that abusive that they would just arrest or torture innocent civilians, as what detractors of Marcos unfairly described the police and military during Martial Law, na parang hindi sila makatao.

    2. “…..US Ambassador to Manila William Sullivan reported that Marcos gifted the 12 with personally-inscribed Omega watches during a ceremony in 1973…..”

      Sa youtube, inamin ni dating Chief of Staff Romeo Espino na Omega watch ang binigay sa kanila ni dating Pres. Marcos, at hindi Rolex watch.

    3. so, ang mga Ayala at Concepcion pala ay sinuportahan dati ang martial law. Concepcion, sina businessman Jose at Raul Concepcion siguro ito, or iyong patriarch nila. Si Don Jaime Ayala pala ay sumuporta rin sa martial law. Akala ko itong mga Concepcion at Ayala ay dati ng anti-Marcos. naging anti-marcos na lang pala sila noong nalugi na ang business nila. bakit hindi nila sisihin si Ninoy na isa sa mga pasimuno ng destabilization laban sa gobyerno upang bumagsak ang ekonomiya ng Pilipinas.

    4. it was Marcos who limited the stay of US bases here; it was Marcos demanded US to pay rent for these military bases here; and the americans retaliated and order him to cut clean. and what do we have now? A pseudo independent state!?

    5. I just hope the Collective Twelve can still find time to write their Memoirs – singly or collaboratively. Maybe, just like when Nelson pocketed loose change writing the Johnny Soliloquy, Bobi can interview each one of them to provide an unexpurgated Historical Eyewitness Account of the Ferdinand Social Experiment – and earn a Pulitzer in the process. That should be the most welcome book of the 21st century and a must-read for all social planners, leaders and policy makers. Bobi may even try to check with some old bankers or the friends of Chito in the tsaynis hierarchy to have an appointment with the Guy himself.

    6. I was in high school when Martial Law was declared– it was the golden years of the Philippines. Our generation has done great and succeeded. Thanks to Marcos.

    7. Mariano Patalinjug on

      Yonkers, New York
      21 September 2015

      The present generation of Filipinos may not know who FERDINAND E. MARCOS was, let alone about his having ruled as a Dictator under Martial Law for so many years.

      They will profit immensely from reading this carefully researched historical Narrative of former Ambassador Roberto T. Tiglao–who, incidentally, was one of many whom Dictator Marcos had arrested and imprisoned!–on the Marcos dictatorship, and also on the crucial question of why the Military supported Marcos.

      This historical Narrative is one of two parts. I suggest that this generation of Filipinos get well acquainted with the Marcos Dictatorship by reading and absorbing the two parts.


      • Indeed. Although I do not deny that there were excesses of those foot soldiers just like the abuses of those para-military units killing the Lumads, those ranted as “human rights victims” were the prisoners of war in the struggle between the Left and the Right. In a war, there will always be victims, POWs and collateral damage. How the Yellow Propagandists made it appear that Ninoy who was a convicted gun-toting possessor of illegal weapons into a “martyr” or the non-paying borrower of DBP loans was pictured as a victim of Marcos’ greed when DBP just foreclosed their ABS-CBN collateral were prime examples of the Goebbels dictum of a lie made big assuming the semblance of truth.

    8. Just a thought that the Liberal Party should initiate their own cleansing with a simple expulsion of PNoy to their revenge for the Miranda Plaza bombing of LP leaders where Ninoy Aquino was not present. Many of the old guard who got hurt in the would probably welcome this! Mar Roxas’ father (I think) was a victim of this bombing. The expulsion of PNoy would bring credibility back to the Liberal Party! This would be true justice because all evidence are easily available. Anyway, PNoy will face a lot of litigation when he steps down. Why not disown him now! In my dreams!

    9. Freddie L. Villanueva on

      “It wasn’t Marcos who issued the now-infamous Arrest Seizure and Search Orders (ASSO) against his perceived enemies. It was Ramos – I still have mine with his signature. The most effective unit that captured leaders of the opposition and the Communist Party was the PC’s 5th Constabulary Security Unit, my captors”- Tiglao

      I now believe that present written history of martial law must be revisited and must be corrected. The truth must be taught in schools immediately. I incline to believe that the Aquino Administration is famous of making their make-believe narratives like what they try to make onn Mamasapano Massacre of SAF 44.

      • sa elementary (especially sa ncr) puro negatibo ang tinuturo about sa mga marcos at si ninoy bayani. dati proud ako kasi taga tarlac ako. pero nong college nako at sa tarlac nako ngstay, nakakasuka sila..narealize ko sa lugar namin sila lang ang mayaman… ang tarlac hindi asensado at sa kabila ng napakaraming politician ay galing sa coangco-aquino. Just imagine, Benigno aquino(senator) cory(pres) binigno jr.(pres) wala nmng nangyari sa tarlac. sa hacienda luisita masaccre (which i personally saw some of the victims) ang daming namatay pero walng nakulong kahit isa. Bulok. sila ang mga tunay na ganid at malupit.

    10. thanks Mr. Tiglao ! but as of now i don’t see any of presidential candidate that will or can change our constitution. this democratic constitution should be abolish.

    11. Freddie L. Villanueva on

      “We have to learn from real history, and go beyond the victors’ narratives.”-Tiglao

      Saludo ako sa yo Sir. Wala akong nakikita sayong sakit na “DILAW”. Mabuhay ka sir.

    12. IN analyzing why the military supported Martial Law needs to study the environment during those times.
      After the WW2, the so called Cold War appeared, a fight between two ideologies which tried to influence the whole world. The Russians influenced its environs in its western boundaries and the West the western Europe and its allies. While in a Asia, the Chinese communists had its own playground. You know what happened in communist dominated countries like Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, etc. killings,purgings, relocations of intelligentia, mass graves,etc. The Chinese had greatly influenced Jose Ma Sison and other idealists Filipinos during the late sixties and early seventies. The politicians danced with them especially the hero kuno now. The youth was in rebellious move and so in around the world. It was like a fashion. With the communist tentacles spreading in the whole country reinforced by the media, the Philippines had to defend itself from this foreign idealogy of communism and so we had Martial Law- a state self defense for survival.
      We have still in our midst the living implementors of Martial Law- who knew too much what evil is communism. These people dedicated their lives to the duly constituted government, but when that leader turned awry from his mandate, they also rebelled.
      Let us be objective in what the country gained during Martial Law and also its weakness and abuses. The presidential decrees are still place and part of the law of the land; the infrastructures which are now turned to profit ventures privatization of Kidneyand r Lung Centers, etc.
      Those who perished during Martial Law have their own monument and those who survived are called the victims, but look at them they are followers of the foreign ideology.They are the collateral victims of the fight.They enjoy the spoil of the fight.
      We can say that without Martial Law. you are not enjoying the perks of theses days.
      .HAIL to the implementors of Martial Law, the men and women who dedicated their lives to the sustenance of democracy.

    13. Mr.Tiglao, i always admired your impartiality even when you are under Gloria Arroyo Presidency. I was 11 yrs old when Martial Law was declared. I witnessed the years under the rule of Pres Marcos and together with the Generals including Gen Ramos implemented the Martial rule style in the Philippines. Only the enemy of the state and the ruling elites hated the rule but, we, the Filipinos agreed that during the rule of Pres Marcos, we are better than now, starting with Cory till now, the ruling elites rules the Philippines but you can see now, there is no progress but deterioration of peace and progress and our culture. there is nothing that the ruling class have done to our society after Marcos , only they keep on saying Democracy was restored, that’s it, on their own.
      Mr. Tiglao, at least , on this column, you have proven that Marcos Generals are the designers and implementors of the Martial Law.

      • Very well said. I still thought that the individual talent ,intelligence and dedicated leadership of Marcos was the soul of this Martial Law implementation that made this implementation a version of its’ kind. Not with this leader that it should be unique. No other leader as of these current corrupt leaders can even likened nor compared the achievement of Ferdinand Marcos..All can do is critisize to overshadow what FM did against what they failed to do or cannot do…Am sorry to say this…

    14. Mr Tiglao, who in hell would file a human rights violation and corruption against any of the generals and Marcos at that time even knowing we are under Martial Law?marcos regime at that time. Or, file a case against them after Cory administration which is a wate of time considering Cory herself didn’t pursue the killers of NInoy.

    15. Don’t forget to mention the terrorist group of the opposition, the light-a-fire movement. Also the for hire or CIA supplied terrorist bomber Victor Lovely. And the well-known (in Tarlac) relationship between Kumander Dante and Ninoy when Ninoy was mayor and governor. And what triggered the Marcos-Lopez feud: Marcos rejected Lopez’s offer to buy Napocor. The alliance between the Right and the Left ( the oligarchy, the Church and the western funded NPA-allied NGOs) remains true up to now, and it is directed mainly against the military and the remaining nationalistic Marcos elements.

    16. I believe that history is written by victors.. Let me just qualify this statement, it is the brains who can really write history. In the martial law debacle, it is only a handful that really knows the planning and the execution of the plan. We can surmise based from our observation using cause and effect reasoning. I have 2 friends that was there during the beginning and end of martial law but they have different experiences and facts. These 2 persons are military men that were so close to Marcos but they were not told about the plans. I do not believe that we as an outsider has the authority to provide factual information. The truth is in the eye of the beholder. There is a big possibility that we may not be able to know what happen.

    17. Thank you again Mr Tiglao. I will save this article for my reference. As I grow older and watching the deterioration of the Philippine’s peace and order , the Filipinos need to know the difference between living under Marcos rule and now. I remember when I was living in Manila (1973-1983) I don’t remember having all these drugs and druglords roaming around. Now it is so rampant. Our Congress is a joke. You cannot take them seriously.
      It’s high time to take a closer look of how Marcos rule.

      • Marcos Sr did some good things for the country. those who lived it and compare the country today will tell the difference. and tell me any politician who did stole from the government. all of them did. I still prefer Martial law than whats going on now. crime were fewer during martial law. cops and military were ordered to shoot to kill kidnappers, armed robbers and terrorists. Now the death penalty was removed. and the government has to feed this criminals in prison. Back in martial law we do not have congress and senate wasting our taxes debating for years to pass a bill . these politicians are worthless.

    18. Qup to now corruption is prevalent in this country disguised as daan matuwid. I just cannot believe pilipinos are mesmerized by dictators to run this country. Pilipinos still feel a known mayor can fixed this country problem or a lame duck candidate can bring stability. Absolute power corrupts absolutely. Some members of the martial law regime are still in power because our voters did not learn from the past or they are so young they did not experience those martial law days

    19. I can only blame the Lopezes and the Aquinos for the declaration of martial law by President Marcos. The oligarchs then gang up on Marcos in deminizing him and glorifying the radicals. I remember the rallies of the radicals were becoming extremely very out of control that in one rally at Mendiola they commandeered a fire truck a bump the gate of the palace. Yet major dailies did not condemned their acts but praise them. Manila Times then has been bragging to us they are the power and treated Marcos like a rat when I attended one of cocktails for advertising agencies then. They used the words: Ken Leon n Tigre Keko ecu ta takot kay Marcos pa.

    20. Destructive communism was creeping all over Asia..korea,vietnam,malaysia,cambodia that time and the US was scrambling to contain it that time. Only Marcos and his bright generals had the balls to contain it. Ninoy was unfortunately courting the Left. Extraordinary times require extraordinary measures. Sure there were abuses, it happens all over the world in the strongest of democracies (Gitmo Bay Cuba, Falklands..) and even TODAY with the Lumads, Burgos disappearance, NPA purges…on both sides, but it doesnt mean they were all sanctioned by their leadership? We could be the next Singapore or the next North Vietnam, if critical decisions were not made in the 70s.

    21. Freddie L. Villanueva on

      Mabuhay ka Mr. Tiglao. Your independent and objective analysis opened the minds sa mga nabubuhay sa kasinungalingang ikinalat ng yellow media at mga makakaliwang grupo. Ako ay buhay na saksi ang kagalingan ng martial law years.

      • Indeed, Bobi has transcended his KM years to view recent history from a world-class view, a far cry from pseudo journalists who only view martial law from the yellow-tainted glasses of their myopic spectacles. What is funny is that those clowns masquerading as senators who know nothing better even would allow these interlopers masquerading as journalists to putrify their august halls.

    22. Contrary to the caricature of drunk military men torturing innocent civilians suspected to be going against Marcos, the military that ran martial law was led by officers of the highest integrity.

      They, and their men, were of such high integrity that they happily killed, tortured, raped and made thousands disappear without being drunk. Being drunk would at least have explained their abhorrent, criminal behaviour; as it is, the author makes sound like they were enjoying “doing their duty”. They therefore could not have been, never were and never would be of the highest integrity.

    23. I was a new cadet when Martial Law was declared. Looking back I believe the main reason why the military supported Marcos was that he had a clear strategy to make the country great again: the revolution from the center strategy. Military men love to follow leaders who have clear strategy to attain a noble objective. Ramos followed what Marcos did; the other presidents appear to have just allowed themselves to be carried away by the prevailing treacherous political currents

      • Marcos is a genius. Nobody can disagree but he use this for his own sinister purpose. He created a condition that communist will take over. Of course as a guardian of this country the military is willing and able to save this country. That is the scenario before the declaration of martial law. That is also the scenario in Germany when Hitler came to power. Marcos just copied Hitler line by line.

    24. Why wouldn’t they? Marcos made them wealthy and became his partners in crime. The military never had it so good before martial law. Military men were poor, it was a job of last resorts before martial law. Marcos have made the military an “ogre the civilian government will never be able to tame.” It has become the fourth branch of the Philippine government.

      Prior to Marcos’ martial rule, the military’s main function was to fight insurgency, build or repair bridges in the provinces and assist in rescue operations during typhoon. Now, the military looms over everything, its annual budget is larger than most governmental agencies. Their top brass are millionaires living in guard gated communities in metro Manila, owns several properties, kids attending exclusive schools and enjoying annual trips abroad.

      The culprit in all of these was Ferdinand Marcos. I think he must be completely written off from Philippines’ history. Filipinos should read the book “Marcos Dynasty” by top investigative author Sterling Seagrave, detailing Marcos’ evil exploits so they will understand why history should not be kind to the late dictator.

    25. thanks, Mr. Tiglao. It’s time for the people to know the truth what happened before, during and immediately after Martial Law. Tell how the communists, left-leaning organizations and enemies of the state, critics of Marcos, continuously destabilized the economy and sowed fear and terror, to taunt and force Marcos to declare Martial Law.

      Marcos repeatedly cautioned them not to force him to declare Martial Law, but the more so that they taunted Marcos by rallying left and right and created troubles in the streets, etc. How Joma Sison, founder of Communist Party of the Philippines, relished the chaos knowing Marcos would be forced to declare Martial Law and the idealistic but naive youth and other Filipinos would go to hinterland to join the communists in fighting the government.

      Read the news “FBI hounded Philippine Freedom Fighters in US.” Heherson Alvarez revealed how he and the other so-called “Steak Commandos” conspired and plotted the bombings of Metro Manila in order to destabilize the economy and Philippine government, in the hope that if Filipinos suffer, they would turn against Marcos.

      Many were injured and died. One of the fatalities of the bombings was an American woman. Singer Noynoy Zuniga was one of the victims of the bombing and one of his legs had to be amputated.

    26. Sometimes “Tough Love is better than No Love”. Democracy has its own loopholes and disadvantages (i.e one democratic crooked is much better than multiple democratic crooks).

    27. Felimon A. Soria on

      I think Facebook readers should read this one. May be we can learn what truly transpired why Martial Law was imposed. May be those Generals mentioned should say something otherwise some columnist specially a Philippine Inquirer columnist by the name of Pimentel will twist whatever happened during Martial Law.

    28. Mr. Tiglao , Go Forth Mr. Tiglao ,FOR YOU ARE ONE OF THE ANOINTED TO
      SHED THE LIGHT that will eventually make the Filipino people Understand / Believe the TRUTH about Marcos sr. … his supposed tyranny , murderer , have stolen vast of Philippibne wealth, dictator etc. etc. etc. I NEVER BELIEVED that Marcos was anyone of the above … Marcos was the only president whom took care of Phil. ECONOMY, SECURITY /DEFENSE , NATION BUILDING , SOCIAL / TOURISM ;EDUCATION; JOB CREATION (MARCOS and Imelda worked together at home and abroad Middle East and the WEST Countries /all over the world to open jobs for Filipinos) Marcos stood BRAVE to fight Malaysia in defense for the Sabbah claim ) … It was aquino sr. working hard to destroy Marcos projects and working with communists … Bless you Mr. Tiglao and may you reign longest to be prophet