IN Germany, the Supreme Court ruled electronic voting as unconstitutional for its lack of transparency. Japan — the world’s leading IT country — still uses a manual system backed by an independent post-election audit. Among the key concerns in these countries is the fact that automated election or electronic voting/counting allows no transparency to the whole electoral process.

The German Federal Constitutional Court (FCC) ruled that the use of electronic voting was unconstitutional and noted that, under the constitution, elections are required to be public in nature and ‘that all essential steps of an election are subject to the possibility of public scrutiny unless other constitutional interests justify an exception…The use of voting machines which electronically record the voters’ votes and electronically ascertain the election result only meets the constitutional requirements if the essential steps of the voting and of the ascertainment of the result can be examined reliably and without any specialist knowledge of the subject…The very wide-reaching effect of possible errors of the voting machines or of deliberate electoral fraud make special precautions necessary in order to safeguard the principle of the public nature of elections.’ The ruling by the GFCC became instrumental in Germany’s reverting from automated to manual election.”

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