EDUCATION for Global Citizenship (GCED) is not an additional subject. As Oxfam explains, it is a "framework for learning, reaching beyond school to the wider community" which can "be promoted in class through the existing curriculum or through new initiatives and activities." (https://www.oxfam.org.uk/education/who-we-are/what-is-global-citizenship/)

GCED teaching and learning materials. In 2015, the last year of the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and marking the formal start of Agenda 2030, Unesco launched its new publication on Global Citizenship Education (GCED) titled Global Citizenship Education: Topics and Learning Objectives. This is said to be "the first pedagogical guidance on GCED." This is Unesco's genuine effort "to help Member States integrate GCED in their education systems, formal and non-formal." Presented during the 2015 World Education Forum, the volume suggests ways of translating GCED concepts into age-specific topics and learning objectives based on the three domains of learning — cognitive, socio-emotional and behavioral." It provided examples of "existing practices and implementation approaches in various countries." As a guide in teaching GCED, it is adaptable, flexible and implementable in different settings. Educators, curriculum developers, trainers as well as policymakers along with other education stakeholders, whether in non-formal or informal settings will find it a valuable guide to realize the objectives of GCED (https://en.unesco.org/news/global-citizenship-education-topics-and-learning-objectives).

GCED perspective. The perspective of GCED is lifelong learning. It spans the varying levels of the education system from early childhood to adulthood. Likewise, it embraces both formal and informal education. (https://uil.unesco.org › adult-education › address ing-gl..). GCED can be taught through the formal or informal curriculum such as the extra-curriculum. Learner participation is widened and encouraged through "formal and informal approaches, educational programs interventions covering both conventional and unconventional methods." It is important that the learning topics conducted are "practical, appropriate to the age of the learners, as well as to diverse geographic and socio-cultural contexts." Unesco recommends that GCED covers the cognitive, socio-emotional and behavioral learning areas to achieve the targeted GCED objectives. By cognitive learning, students are to get "to know, understand and critically judge global, regional, national and local issues, as well as the interconnectedness and interdependence between different countries and peoples." By Socio-emotional learning, students should be taught to develop a feeling of belonging to a common humanity, of sharing values and responsibilities, empathy, solidarity and respect for diversity and differences. Finally, behavioral learning should "develop learners to act effectively and responsibly locally, nationally and globally to foster world learners peace and sustainability." The three domains of learning mentioned above are interlinked and integrated into the learning process. (https://en.unesco. org/themes /gced/definition)

GCED in the Philippines. Celebrating diversity, then, is a key focus of GCED in the region. In the Philippines' Mindanao region, for example, teacher training institutions charged with implementing GCED focus on peace education, according to a study by Philippine Normal University professor Serafin Arviola Jr., building peace is a priority in the region given longstanding conflicts there between Muslims, Christians and Lumad. (https://bangkok. unesco.org › content › global-citizenshi...) Embedding GCED in the new teacher education curriculum in the Philippines was the major objective of a workshop in October 2017 co-organized by the Asia-Pacific Center of Education for International Understanding (Apceiu) along with the Philippine Normal University, the Philippine National Commission for Unesco, and the National Association of Unesco Clubs in the Philippines. "A total of 50 participants consisting of deans and professors at colleges of education and basic education teachers from all regions of the Philippines attended the workshop with the objective of reinforcing the effective incorporation of GCED in the teacher education curriculum in the Philippines." (http://www. unescoapceiu.org/post/2751) Serving as background of the workshop was a new teacher education curriculum in the Philippines that has been introduced to prepare teachers for the newly approved K to 12 (Kindergarten to Grade 12) curriculum in the basic education sector. The workshop aimed to "raise participants' awareness about GCED and enhance their understanding of the key concepts, practices, pedagogy and facilitation strategies for GCED and discussed methods for embedding GCED into the new teacher education curriculum." (http://www. unescoapceiu.org/post/2751)

Support for GCED and service-learning. In May 2018, the Asia-Pacific Regional GCED Network was launched in Jakarta, Indonesia. Various organizations committed to the realization of GCED toward Education 2030. These provide "opportunities for GCED stakeholders (i.e., policymakers, researchers, educators) to gather and exchange information and research, share good practices, discuss challenges and identify gaps of GCED, suggest possible solutions and provide expertise." In September this year, Unesco Bangkok and the Apceiu, co-chairs of the Jakarta-born network, invited "two network core working group members, the Korean Society of Education for International Understanding (Koseiu) and the Japan Association for International Education (JAIE) to host the first online forum for the network." The goal of the on-line forum was "to further synergize the Network and its members" This should inspire other networks to put up similar on-line series which could be assisted as well as "hosted by the network members." (https://apa.sdg4education2030.org › 2021-asia-pacific-r...) Another medium for GCED is through service learning. The approach to service learning as Mitchell (2008) clarifies, "could be critical or transformative." This approach to service-learning, "seeks genuine social change by attending to structural causes of social injustice." Students are honed as "engaged citizens by providing them meaningful and relevant opportunities to work 'with' those from the community in responding to their identified needs and in addressing unjust structures that made them marginalized and disenfranchised (Chambers, 2009; Mitchell, 2008; Ward & Wolf-Wendel, 2000)." Read "Service-Learning as Global Citizenship Education: Acting Locally on Global Challenges and Concerns," by Genejane M. Adarlo Ateneo de Manila University in IAFOR Journal of Education: Undergraduate Education Volume 8, Issue 3, 2020.

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Teresita Tanhueco-Tumapon, PhD, one of the Philippines most accomplished educators and experts on higher education institutional management, studied in top universities in the Philippines and in Germany, Britain and Japan. She held top academic positions at Xavier University, the Ateneo de Cagayan; was presidential appointee after EDSA 1986 to normalize campus operations in state institutions and served 17 years thereafter as SUC president. She is internationalization office director and professorial lecturer at Liceo de Cagayan University. Awards include the CHEd Lifetime Professional Achievement Award, The British Council Valuable Services Recognition Award, the Federal Republic of Germany Order of Merit, and the Department of Education award for her initiatives as a pioneer member of the Philippine Teacher Education Council.