Part 1 – What is a perspective

We must create a kind of globalization for everyone... and not just for a few.

– Nestor Kirchner

WITH an available and functional internet, we overcome distance and time. We become connected to people on all continents, experience their cultures virtually. This diversity in cultures calls for our understanding of the physical and social world. Thus, we need to have a global perspective. Without a global perspective, we become aliens to our physical environment. We become aliens to our social environment, to our own kind. What then is a perspective?

What is a perspective? In referring to perspective, we mean "a particular attitude toward or way of regarding something" a particular way of considering something; a viewpoint, outlook, standpoint, or opinion." ( eb) Our perspectives are based on the degree of our knowing and understanding that we have on a particular matter. This knowing and understanding colors our perspective, our viewpoint, on that matter. Our perspectives on economics, on government, on education, on religion, on women, on public or state schools, on business, etc. — all these draw from our experiences, firm opinions, beliefs and convictions of these terms. Stress can impact on our perspective. It can create a positive or negative bias. If we have a negative viewpoint of a situation, we will tend to focus more "on the worst case scenario." So much could happen to our judgment which could even leave us distraught and close-minded, missing out the positive side of the situation such as the opportunities it could offer. This leaves us with a feeling that everything is wrong and no other alternative is possible. Reviewing different perspectives of a situation helps us understand other positions which help us "consider other beliefs, experiences and viewpoints." Essentially, "our better understanding generates greater empathy, reduces bias, judgement and conflict."

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Teaching perspectives — the K to 12 arts and design track. The integration of specialized tracks is one of the significant features of the K to 12 system. These tracks are designed to help students determine their respective career paths. The technical-vocational, sports, and arts and design tracks allow students to join the workforce immediately upon graduation, whereas the academic track prepares students for college/further studies. ( The different subjects in the curriculum give our students opportunities to develop healthy perspectives. An example is the Arts and Design track in the K to 12 — where we can teach our students various perspectives on the arts, be this the visual or performing arts. These perspectives on the arts are birthed by one's thoughts, emotional understanding and creative thinking. Preparing our students for drawing out their individual perspective in the Arts and Design tracks could be enriched through their knowledge of art from different eras such as those in the Louvre Museum In Paris — the country's most renowned museum and one of the most visited in the world. On-line exposure to such museums would be fun and exciting. Many factors influence a perspective on the arts. Love of country, love of the classical, love of the modern (as in the TikTok of performing arts or graffiti of visual arts) — one's emotional understanding of these kinds of arts, one's creativity, numerous factors such as the "political, social, cultural, gender, racial attributes, etc." — all these influence the perspective of these arts. We can ask our students to form an opinion on pieces or a group of arts; have them state the characteristics as to how the art of each type or era is different from each other and what factors influenced this form, type or style. We can do similarly about the performing arts and about our own Filipino arts.

Teaching perspectives — the K to 12 Natural Science. Science defines the basic existence of almost everything on this Earth. The goal of science teaching and learning is to understand the nature of science — which is "a critical component of scientific literacy." When students understand science concepts, it enables them to make informed decisions about scientifically-based personal and societal issues. Dimensions of scientific literacy could easily be translated into objectives for science curricula. Scientific literacy means that an individual has "an understanding of scientific concepts, phenomena and processes and has the ability to apply this knowledge to new and, at times, non-scientific situations." (PISA, 2018) Teaching natural science aims to develop our students' scientific literacy. We can have our students engage in literate practices to develop their understanding of scientific concepts. The National Science and Teaching Authority (NSTA) recommends that by the time they graduate from high school, students should understand the following concepts related to the nature of science — that (1) Scientific investigations use a variety of methods; (2) Scientific knowledge is based on empirical evidence; (3) Science models, laws, mechanisms and theories explain natural phenomena; (4) Science Is a way of knowing; (5) Scientific knowledge assumes an order and consistency in natural systems;(6) Science is a human endeavor; and (7) Science addresses questions about the natural and material world. These ideas stress "the use of science and engineering practices to actively engage students in science learning, the integration of these practices with disciplinary core ideas and cross-cutting concepts, and student learning to be driven by the need to explain phenomena and/or design solutions to problems." (Transitioning from Scientific Inquiry to Three-Dimensional Teaching and Learning | NSTA) Improving students' literacy in science develops their scientific understanding, increases their scientific literacy, and provides them a healthy perspective of science.

Teresita Tanhueco-Tumapon, PhD, one of the Philippines most accomplished educators and experts on higher education institutional management, studied in top universities in the Philippines and in Germany, Britain and Japan. She held top academic positions at Xavier University, the Ateneo de Cagayan; was presidential appointee after EDSA 1986 to normalize campus operations in state institutions and served 17 years thereafter as SUC president. She is an Internationalization Office consultant and professorial lecturer at Liceo de Cagayan University. Awards include the CHEd Lifetime Professional Achievement Award, The British Council Valuable Services Recognition Award, the Federal Republic of Germany Order of Merit, and the Department of Education award for her initiatives as a pioneer member of the Philippine Teacher Education Council.

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